Future? Libraries? What Now? – After the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries

I attended the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries a few weeks ago.

[Let's give it a minute for that to sink in.]

ALA President Barbara Stripling at the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries at the Library of Congress

ALA President Barbara Stripling at the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries at the Library of Congress. (Photo by the author)

Yes, that was that controversial Summit that was much talked about on Twitter with the #libfuturesummit hashtag. This Summit and other summits with a similar theme close to one another in timing – “The Future of Libraries Survival Summit” hosted by Information Today Inc. and “The Future of Libraries: Do We Have Five Years to Live?” hosted by Ken Heycock Associates Inc. and Dysart & Jones Associates – seemed to have brought out the sentiment that Andy Woodworth aptly named ‘Library Future Fatigue.’ It was impressive experience to see how active librarians – both ALA members and non-members – were in providing real-time comments and feedback about these summits while I was at one of those in person. I thought ALA is lucky to have such engaged members and librarians to work with.

A few days ago, ALA released the official Summit report.1 The report captured all the talks and many table discussions in great detail. In this post, I will focus on some of my thoughts and take-aways prompted by the talks and the table discussion at the Summit.

A. The Draw

Here is an interesting fact. The invitation to this Summit sat in my Inbox for over a month because from the email subject I thought it was just another advertisement for a fee-based webinar or workshop. It was only after I had gotten another email from the ALA office asking about the previous e-mail that I realized that it was something different.

What drew me to this Summit were: (a) I have never been at a formal event organized just for a discussion about the future of libraries, (b) the event were to include a good number of people outside of the libraries, and (c) the overall size of the Summit would be kept relatively small.

For those curious, the Summit had 51 attendees plus 6 speakers, a dozen discussion table facilitators, all of whom fit into the Members’ Room in the Library of Congress. Out of those 51 attendees, 9 of them were from the non-library sector such as Knight Foundation, PBS, Rosen Publishing, and Aspen Institute. 33 attendees ranged from academic librarians to public, school, federal, corporate librarians, library consultants, museum and archive folks, an LIS professor, and library vendors. And then there were 3 ALA presidents (current, past, and president-elect) and 6 officers from ALA. You can see the list of participants here.

B. Two Words (or Phrases)

At the beginning of the Summit, the participants were asked to come up with two words or short phrases that capture what they think about libraries “from now on.” We wrote these on the ribbons and put right under our name tags. Then we were encouraged to keep or change them as we move through the Summit.

My two phrases were “Capital and Labor” and “Peer-to-Peer.” I kept those two until the end of the Summit and didn’t change. I picked “Capital and Labor” because recently I have been thinking more about the socioeconomic background behind the expansion of post-secondary education (i.e. higher ed) and how it affects the changes in higher education and academic libraries.2 And of course, the fact that Thomas Picketty’s book, Capital in the 21st Century, was being reviewed and discussed all over in the mass media contributed to that choice of the words as well. In my opinion, libraries “from now on” will be closely driven by the demands of the capital and the labor market and asked to support more and more of the peer-to-peer learning activities that have become widespread with the advent of the Internet.

Other phrases and words I saw from other participants included “From infrastructure to engagement,” “Sanctuary for learning,” “Universally accessible,” “Nimble and Flexible,” “From Missionary to Mercenary,” “Ideas into Action,” and “Here, Now.” The official report also lists some of the words that were most used by participants. If you choose your two words or phrases that capture what you think about libraries “from now on,” what would those be?

C. The Set-up

The Summit organizers have filled the room with multiple round tables, and the first day morning, afternoon, and the second day morning, participants sat at the table according to the table number assigned on the back of their name badges. This was a good method that enabled participants to have discussion with different groups of people throughout the Summit.

As the Summit agenda shows, the Summit program started with a talk by a speaker. After that, participants were asked to personally reflect on the talk and then have a table discussion. This discussion was captured on the large poster-size papers by facilitators and collected by the event organizers. The papers on which we were asked to write our personal reflections were  also collected in the same way along with all our ribbons on which we wrote those two words or phrases. These were probably used to produce the official Summit report.

One thing I liked about the set-up was that every participant sat at a round table including speakers and all three ALA presidents (past, president, president-elect). Throughout the Summit, I had a chance to talk to Lorcan Dempsey from OCLC, Corinne Hill, the director of Chattanooga Public Library, Courtney Young, the ALA president-elect, and Thomas Frey, a well-known futurist at DaVinci Institute, which was neat.

Also, what struck me most during the Summit was that those who were outside of the library took the guiding questions and the following discussion much more seriously than those of us who are inside the library world. Maybe indeed we librarians are suffering from ‘library future fatigue.’ And/or maybe outsiders have more trust in libraries as institutions than we librarians do because they are less familiar with our daily struggles and challenges in the library operation. Either way, the Summit seemed to have given them an opportunity to seriously consider the future of libraries. The desired impact of this would be more policymakers, thought leaders, and industry leaders who are well informed about today’s libraries and will articulate, support, and promote the significant work libraries do to the benefit of the society in their own areas.

D. Talks, Table Discussion, and Some of My Thoughts and Take-aways

These were the talks given during the two days of the Summit:

  • “How to Think Like a Freak” – Stephen Dubner, Journalist
  • “What Are Libraries Good For?” – Joel Garreau, Journalist
  • “Education in the Future: Anywhere, Anytime” – Dr. Renu Khator, Chancellor and President at the University of Houston
  • “From an Internet of Things to a Library of Things” – Thomas Frey, Futurist
  • A Table Discussion of Choice:
    • Open – group decides the topic to discuss
    • Empowering individuals and families
    • Promoting literacy, particularly in children and youth
    • Building communities the library serves
    • Protecting and empowering access to information
    • Advancing research and scholarship at all levels
    • Preserving and/or creating cultural heritage
    • Supporting economic development and good government
  • “What Happened at the Summit?” – Joan Frye Williams, Library consultant

(0) Official Report, Liveblogging Posts, and Tweets

As I mentioned earlier, ALA released the 15-page official report of the Summit, which provides the detailed description of each talk and table discussion. Carolyn Foote, a school librarian and one of the Summit participants, also live-blogged all of the these talks in detail. I highly recommend reading her notes on Day 1, Day 2, and Closing in addition to the official report. The tweets from the Summit participants with the official hashtag, #libfuturesummit, will also give you an idea of what participants found exciting at the Summit.

(1) Redefining a Problem

The most fascinating story in the talk by Dubner was Kobe, the hot dog eating contest champion from Japan. The secret of his success in the eating contest was rethinking the accepted but unchallenged artificial limits and redefining the problem, said Dubner. In Kobe’s case, he redefined the problem from ‘How can I eat more hotdogs?’ to ‘How can I eat one hotdog faster?’ and then removed artificial limits – widely accepted but unchallenged conventions – such as when you eat a hot dog you hold it in the hand and eat it from the top to the bottom. He experimented with breaking the hotdog into two pieces to feed himself faster with two hands. He further refined his technique by eating the frankfurter and the bun separately to make the eating even speedier.

So where can libraries apply this lesson? One thing I can think of is the problem of the low attendance of some library programs. What if we ask what barriers we can remove instead of asking what kind of program will draw more people? Chattanooga Public Library did exactly this. Recently, they targeted the parents who would want to attend the library’s author talk and created an event that would specifically address the child care issue. The library scheduled a evening story time for kids and fun activities for tween and teens at the same time as the author talk. Then they asked parents to come to the library with the children, have their children participate in the library’s children’s programs, and enjoy themselves at the library’s author talk without worrying about the children.

Another library service that I came to learn about at my table was the Zip Books service by the Yolo county library in California. What if libraries ask what the fastest to way to deliver a book that the library doesn’t have to a patron’s door would be instead of asking how quickly the cataloging department can catalog a newly acquired book to get it ready for circulation? The Yolo county library Zip Books service came from that kind of redefinition of a problem. When a library user requests a book the library doesn’t have but meets certain requirements, the Yolo County Library purchases the book from a bookseller and have it shipped directly to the patron’s home without processing the book. Cataloging and processing is done when the book is returned to the library after the first use.

(2) What Can Happen to Higher Education

My favorite talk during the Summit was by Dr. Khator because she had deep insight in higher education and I have been working at university libraries for a long time. The two most interesting observations she made were the possibility of (a) the decoupling of the content development and the content delivery and (b) the decoupling of teaching and credentialing in higher education.

The upside of (a) is that some wonderful class a world-class scholar created may be taught by other instructors at places where the person who originally developed the class is not available. The downside of (a) is, of course, the possibility of it being used as the cookie-cutter type lowest baseline for quality control in higher education – University of Phoenix mentioned as an example of this by one of the participants at my table – instead of college and university students being exposed to the classes developed and taught by their institutions’ own individual faculty members.

I have to admit that (b) was a completely mind-blowing idea to me. Imagine colleges and universities with no credentialing authority. Your degree will no longer be tied to a particular institution to which you were admitted and graduate from. Just consider the impact of what this may entail if it ever becomes realized. If both (a) and (b) take place at the same time, the impact would be even more significant. What kind of role could an academic library play in such a scenario?

(3) Futurizing Libraries

Joe Garreau observed that nowadays what drives the need for a physical trip is more and more a face-to-face contact than anything else. Then he pointed out that as technology allows more people to tele-work, people are flocking to smaller cities where they can have a more meaningful contact with the community. If this is indeed the case, libraries that make their space a catalyst for a face-to-face contact in a community will prosper. Last speaker, Thomas Frey, spoke mostly about the Internet of Things (IoT).

While I think that IoT is an important trend to note, for sure, what I most liked about Frey’s talk was his statement that the vision of future we have today will change the decisions we make (towards that future). After the talk by Garreau, I had a chance to ask him a question about his somewhat idealized vision of the future, in which people live and work in a small but closely connected community in a society that is highly technological and collaborative. He called this ‘human evolution’.

But in my opinion, the reality that we see today in my opinion is not so idyllic.3 The current economy is highly volatile. It no longer offers job security, consistently reduces the number of jobs, and returns either stagnant or decreasing amount of income for those whose skills are not in high demand in the era of digital revolution.4 As a result, today’s college students, who are preparing to become tomorrow’s knowledge workers, are perceiving their education and their lives after quite differently than their parents did.5

Garreau’s answer to my question was that this concern of mine may be coming from a kind of techno-determinism. While this may be a fair critique, I felt that his portrayal of the human evolution may be just as techno-deterministic. (To be fair, he mentioned that he does not make predictions and this is one of the future scenarios he sees.)

Regarding the topic of the Internet of Things (IoT), which was the main topic of Frey’s talk, the privacy and the proper protection of the massive amount of data – which will result from the very many sensors that makes IoT possible – will be the real barrier to implementing the IoT on a large scale. After his talk, I had a chance to briefly chat with him about this. (There was no Q&A because Frey’s talk went over the time allotted). He mentioned the possibility of some kind of an international gathering similar to the scale of the Geneva Conventions to address the issue. While the likelihood of that is hard to assess, the idea seemed appropriate to the problem in question.

(4) What If…?

One of the slides from Thoams Frey's Talk at the ALA Summit. (Photo by the author)

One of the slides from Thomas Frey’s Talk at the ALA Summit. (Photo by the author)

Some of the shiny things shown at the talk, whose value for library users may appear dubious and distant, however, prompted Eli Neiburger at Ann Arbor District Library to question which useful service libraries can offer to provide the public with significant benefit now. He wondered what it would be like if many libraries ran a Tor exit node to help the privacy and anonymity of the web traffic, for example.

For those who are unfamiliar, Tor (the Onion Router) is “free software and an open network that helps you defend against traffic analysis, a form of network surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy, confidential business activities and relationships, and state security.” Tor is not foolproof, but it is still the best tool for privacy and anonymity on the Web.

Eli’s idea is a truly wild one because there are so many libraries in the US and the public’s privacy in the US is in such a precarious state.6 Running a Tor exit node is not a walk in the park as this post by someone who actually set up a Tor exit node on a hosted virtual server in Germany attests. But libraries have been a serious and dedicated advocate for privacy for people’s intellectual freedom for a long time and have a strong network of alliance. There is also the useful guidelines and tips that Tor provides in their website.

Just pause a minute and imagine what kind of impact such a project by libraries may have to the privacy of the public. What if?

(5) Leadership and Sustainability

For the “Table Discussion of Choice” session, I opted for the “Open” table because I was curious in what other topics people were interested. Two discussions at this session were most memorable to me. One was the great advice I got from Corinne Hill regarding leading people. A while ago, I read her interview, in which she commented that “the staff are just getting comfortable with making decisions.” In my role as a relatively new manager, I also found empowering my team members to be more autonomous decision makers a challenge. Corinne particularly cautioned that leaders should be very careful about not being over-critical when the staff takes an initiative but makes a bad decision. Being over-critical in that case can discourage the staff from trying to make their own decisions in their expertise areas, she said. Hearing her description of how she relies on the different types of strengths in her staff to move her library in the direction of innovation was also illuminating to me. (Lorcan Dempsey who was also at our table mentioned “Birkman Quadrants” in relation to Corinne’s description, a set of useful theoretical constructs. He also brought up the term ‘Normcore’ at another session. I forgot the exact context of that term, but the term was interesting that I wrote it down.) We also talked for a while about the current LIS education and how it is not sufficiently aligned with the skills needed in everyday library operation.

The other interesting discussion started with the question about the sustainability of the future libraries by Amy Garmer from Aspen Institute. (She has been working on a library-related project with various policy makers, and PLA has a program related to this project at the upcoming 2014 ALA Annual Conference if you are interested.) One thought that always comes to my mind whenever I think about the future of libraries is that while in the past the difference between small and large libraries was mostly quantitative in terms of how many books and other resources were available, in the present and future, the difference is and will be more qualitative. What New York Public Libraries offers for their patrons, a whole suite of digital library products from the NYPL Labs for example, cannot be easily replicated by a small rural library. Needless to say, this has a significant implication for the core mission of the library, which is equalizing the public’s access to information and knowledge. What can we do to close that gap? Or perhaps will different types of libraries have different strategies for the future, as Lorcan Dempsey asked at our table discussion? These two things are not incompatible to be worked out at the same time.

(6) Nimble and Media-Savvy

In her Summit summary, Joanne Frye Williams, who moved around to observe discussions at all tables during the Summit, mentioned that one of the themes that surfaced was thinking about a library as a developing enterprise rather than a stable organization. This means that the modus operandi of a library should become more nimble and flexible to keep the library in the same pace of the change that its community goes through.

Another thread of discussion among the Summit participants was that not all library supporters have to be the active users of the library services. As long as those supporters know that the presence and the service of libraries makes their communities strong, libraries are in a good place. Often libraries make the mistake of trying to reach all of their potential patrons to convert them into active library users. While this is admirable, it is not always practical or beneficial to the library operation. More needed and useful is a well-managed strategic media relations that will effectively publicize the library’s services and programs and its benefits and impact to its community. (On a related note, one journalist who was at the Summit mentioned how she noticed the recent coverage about libraries changing its direction from “Are libraries going to be extinct?” to “No, libraries are not going to be extinct. And do you know libraries offer way more than books such as … ?”, which is fantastic.)

E. What Now? Library Futurizing vs. Library Grounding

What all the discussion at the Summit reminded me was that ultimately the time and efforts we spend on trying to foresee what the future holds for us and on raising concerns about the future may be better directed at refining the positive vision for the desirable future for libraries and taking well-calculated and decisive actions towards the realization of that vision.

Technology is just a tool. It can be used to free people to engage in more meaningful work and creative pursuits. Or it can be used to generate a large number of the unemployed, who have to struggle to make the ends meet and to retool themselves with fast-changing skills that the labor market demands, along with those in the top 1 or 0.1 % of very rich people. And we have the power to influence and determine which path we should and would be on by what we do now.

Certainly, there are trends that we need to heed. For example, the shift of the economy that places a bigger role on entrepreneurship than ever before requires more education and support for entrepreneurship for students at universities and colleges. The growing tendency of the businesses looking for potential employees based upon their specific skill sets rather than their majors and grades has lead universities and colleges to adopt a digital badging system (such as Purdue’s Passport) or other ways for their students to record and prove the job-related skills obtained during their study.

But when we talk about the future, many of us tend to assume that there are some kind of inevitable trends that we either get or miss and that those trends will determine what our future will be. We forget that not some trends but (i) what we intend to achieve in the future and (ii) today’s actions we take to realize that intention are really what determines our future. (Also always critically reflect on whatever is trendy; you may be in for a surprise.7) The fact that people will no longer need to physically visit a library to check out books or access library resources does not automatically mean that the library in the future will cease to have a building. The question is whether we will let that be the case. Suppose we decide that we want the library to be and stay as the vibrant hub for a community’s freedom of inquiry and right to access human knowledge, no matter how much change takes place in the society. Realizing this vision ‘IS’ within our power. We only reach the future by walking through the present.


  1. Stripling, Barbara. “Report on the Summit on the Future of Libraries.” ALA Connect, May 19, 2014. http://connect.ala.org/node/223667.
  2. Kim, Bohyun. “Higher ‘Professional’ Ed, Lifelong Learning to Stay Employed, Quantified Self, and Libraries.” ACRL TechConnect Blog, March 23, 2014. http://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/?p=4180.
  3. Ibid.
  4. For a short but well-written clear description of this phenomenon, see Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Andrew McAfee. Race against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy. Lexington: Digital Frontier Press, 2012.
  5. Brooks, David. “The Streamlined Life.” The New York Times, May 5, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/06/opinion/brooks-the-streamlined-life.html.
  6. See Timm, Trevor. “Everyone Should Know Just How Much the Government Lied to Defend the NSA.” The Guardian, May 17, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/17/government-lies-nsa-justice-department-supreme-court.
  7. For example, see this article about what the wide adoption of 3D-printing may mean to the public. Sadowski, Jathan, and Paul Manson. “3-D Print Your Way to Freedom and Prosperity.” Al Jazeera America, May 17, 2014. http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/5/3d-printing-politics.html.

Library & Academic Tech Conferences Roundup

Here we present a summary of various library technology conferences that ACRL TechConnect authors have been to. There are a lot of them and some fairly niche. So we hope this guide serves to assist neophytes and veterans alike in choosing how they spend their limited professional development monies. Do you attend one of these conferences every year because it’s awesome? Did we miss your favorite conference? Let us know in the comments!

The lisevents.com website might be of interest, as it compiles LIS conferences of all types. Also, one might be able to get a sense of the content of a conference by searching for its hashtag on Twitter. Most conferences list their hashtag on their website.


  • Time: late in the year, typically September or October
  • Place: Canada
  • Website: http://accessconference.ca/
  • Access is a Canada’s annual library technology conference. Although the focus is primarily on technology, a wide variety of topics are addressed from linked data, innovation, makerspace, to digital archiving by librarians in various areas of specialization. (See the past conferences’ schedules: http://accessconference.ca/about/past-conferences/) Access provides an excellent opportunity to get an international perspective without traveling too far. Access is also a single-track conference, offers great opportunities to network, and starts with preconferences and the hackathon, which welcomes to all types of librarians not just library coders. Both preconferences and the hackathon are optional but highly recommended. (p.s. One of the ACRL TechConnect authors thinks that this is the conference with the best conference lunch and snacks.)


  • Time: early in the year, typically February but this year in late March
  • Place: varies
  • Website: http://code4lib.org/conference/
  • Code4Lib is unique in that it is organized by a group of volunteers and not supported by any formal organization. While it does cover some more general technology concepts, the conference tends to be focused on coding, naturally. Preconferences from past years have covered the Railsbridge curriculum for learning Ruby on Rails and Blacklight, the open source discovery interface. Code4Lib moves quickly—talks are short (20 minutes) with even shorter lightning talks thrown in—but is also all on one track in the same room; attendees can see every presentation.

Computers in Libraries

  • Time: Late March or early April
  • Place: Washington, DC
  • Website: http://www.infotoday.com/conferences.asp
  • Computers in Libraries is a for-profit conference hosted by Information Today. Its use of tracks, organizing presentations around a topic or group of topics, is a useful way to attend a conference and its overall size is more conducive to networking, socializing, and talking with vendors in the exhibit hall than many other conferences. However, the role of consultants in panel and presentation selection and conference management, as opposed to people who work in libraries, means that there is occasionally a focus on trends that are popular at the moment, but don’t pan out, as well as language more suited to an MBA than an MLIS. The conference also lacks a code of conduct and given the corporate nature of the conference, the website is surprisingly antiquated.
  • They also run Internet Librarian, which meets in Monterey, California, every fall.
    — Jacob Berg, Library Director, Trinity Washington University

Digital Library Federation Forum

  • Time: later in the year, October or November
  • Place: varies
  • Website: http://www.diglib.org/
  • We couldn’t find someone who attended this. If you have, please add your review of this conference in the comments section!


  • Time: late in the year, typically November
  • Place: Richmond, VA
  • Website: http://eduiconf.org/
  • Not a library conference, edUI is aimed at web professionals working in higher education but draws a fair number of librarians. The conference tends to draw excellent speakers, both from within higher education and the web industry at large. Sessions cover user experience, design, social media, and current tools of the trade. The talks suit a broad range of specialties, from programmers to people who work on the web but aren’t technologists foremost.

Electronic Resources & Libraries

  • Time: generally early in the year, late-February to mid-March.
  • Place: Austin, TX
  • Website: http://www.electroniclibrarian.com/
  • The main focus of this conference is workflows and issues surrounding electronic resources (such as licensed databases and online journals, and understanding these is crucial to anyone working with library technology, whether or not they manage e-resources on a daily basis. In recent years the conference has expanded greatly into areas such as open access and user experience, with tracks specifically dedicated to those areas. This year there were also some overlapping programs and themes with SXSW and the Leadership, Technology, Gender Summit.

Handheld Librarian

  • Time: held a few times throughout the year
  • Place: online
  • Website: http://handheldlibrarian.org
  • An online conference devoted specifically to mobile technologies. The advantage of this conference is that without traveling, you can get a glimpse of the current developments and applications of mobile technologies in libraries. It originally started in 2009 as an annual one-day online conference based upon the accepted presentation proposals submitted in advance. The conference went through some changes in recent years, and now it offers a separate day of workshops in addition and focuses on a different theme in mobile technologies in libraries. All conference presentations and workshops are recorded. If you are interested in attending, it is a good idea to check out the presentations and the speakers in advance.

Internet Librarian

  • Time: October
  • Place: Monterey, CA
  • Website: http://www.infotoday.com/conferences.asp
  • Internet Librarian is for-profit conference hosted by Information Today. It is quite similar to Information Today’s Computers in Libraries utilizing tracks to organize a large number of presentations covering a broad swath of library information technology topics. Internet Librarian also hosts the Internet @ Schools track that focus on the IT needs of the K12 library community. IL is held annually in Monterey California in October. The speaker list is deep and varied and one can expect keynote speakers to be prominent and established names in the field. The conference is well attended and provides a good opportunity to network with library technology peers. As with Computers in Libraries, there is no conference code of conduct.


  • Time: varies, typically in the second half of the year
  • Place: varies, international
  • Website: http://koha-community.org/kohacon/
  • The annual conference devoted to the Koha open source ILS.

 Library Technology Conference

  • Time: mid-March
  • Place: St. Paul, MN
  • Website: http://libtechconf.org/
  • LTC is an annual library conference that takes place in March. It’s both organized by and takes place at Macalester College in St. Paul. Not as completely tech-heavy as a Code4Lib or even an Access, talks at LTC tend to run a whole range of technical aptitudes. Given the time and location of LTC, it has historically been primarily of regional interest but has seen elevating levels of participation nationally and internationally.
    — John Fink, Digital Scholarship Librarian, McMaster University
  • We asked Twitter for a short overview of Library Technology Conference, and Matthew Reidsma offered up this description:

LITA Forum

  • Time: Late in the year, typically November
  • Place: varies
  • Website: http://www.ala.org/lita/conferences
  • A general library technology conference that’s moderately sized, with some 300 attendees most years. One of LITA’s nice aspects is that, because of the smaller size of the conference and the arranged networking dinners, it’s very easy to meet other librarians. You need not be involved with LITA to attend and there are no committee or business meetings.

Open Repositories

  • Time: mid-summer, June or July
  • Place: varies, international
  • Website: changes each year, here are the 2013 and 2014 sites
  • A mid-sized conference focused specifically on institutional repositories.

Online NorthWest

  • Time: February
  • Place: Corvallis, OR
  • Website: http://onlinenorthwest.org/
  • A small library technology conference in the Pacific Northwest. Hosted by the Oregon University System, but invites content from Public, Medical, Special, Legal, and Academic libraries.


  • Time: all the time
  • Place: varies, international
  • Website: http://thatcamp.org/
  • Every THATCamp is different, but all revolve around technology and the humanities (i.e. The Technology And Humanities Camp). They are unconferences with “no spectators”, and so will reflect the interests of the participants. Some have specific themes such as digital pedagogy, others are attached to conferences as pre or post conference events, and some are more general regional events. Librarians are important participants in THATCamps, and if there is one in your area or at a conference you’re attending, you should go. They cost under $30 and are a great networking and education opportunity. Sign up for the THATCamp mailing list or subscribe to the RSS feed to find out about new THATCamps. They have a attendee limit and usually fill up quickly.

Higher ‘Professional’ Ed, Lifelong Learning to Stay Employed, Quantified Self, and Libraries

The 2014 Horizon Report is mostly a report on emerging technologies. Many academic librarians carefully read its Higher Ed edition issued every year to learn about the upcoming technology trends. But this year’s Horizon Report Higher Ed edition was interesting to me more in terms of how the current state of higher education is being reflected on the report than in terms of the technologies on the near-term (one-to-five year) horizon of adoption. Let’s take a look.

A. Higher Ed or Higher Professional Ed?

To me, the most useful section of this year’s Horizon Report was ‘Wicked Challenges.’ The significant backdrop behind the first challenge “Expanding Access” is the fact that the knowledge economy is making higher education more and more closely and directly serve the needs of the labor market. The report says, “a postsecondary education is becoming less of an option and more of an economic imperative. Universities that were once bastions for the elite need to re-examine their trajectories in light of these issues of access, and the concept of a credit-based degree is currently in question.” (p.30)

Many of today’s students enter colleges and universities with a clear goal, i.e. obtaining a competitive edge and a better earning potential in the labor market. The result that is already familiar to many of us is the grade and the degree inflation and the emergence of higher ed institutions that pursue profit over even education itself. When the acquisition of skills takes precedence to the intellectual inquiry for its own sake, higher education comes to resemble higher professional education or intensive vocational training. As the economy almost forces people to take up the practice of lifelong learning to simply stay employed, the friction between the traditional goal of higher education – intellectual pursuit for its own sake – and the changing expectation of higher education — creative, adaptable, and flexible workforce – will only become more prominent.

Naturally, this socioeconomic background behind the expansion of postsecondary education raises the question of where its value lies. This is the second wicked challenge listed in the report, i.e. “Keeping Education Relevant.” The report says, “As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, institutional stakeholders must address the question of what universities can provide that other approaches cannot, and rethink the value of higher education from a student’s perspective.” (p.32)

B. Lifelong Learning to Stay Employed

Today’s economy and labor market strongly prefer employees who can be hired, retooled, or let go at the same pace with the changes in technology as technology becomes one of the greatest driving force of economy. Workers are expected to enter the job market with more complex skills than in the past, to be able to adjust themselves quickly as important skills at workplaces change, and increasingly to take the role of a creator/producer/entrepreneur in their thinking and work practices. Credit-based degree programs fall short in this regard. It is no surprise that the report selected “Agile Approaches to Change” and “Shift from Students as Consumers to Students as Creators” as two of the long-range and the mid-range key trends in the report.

A strong focus on creativity, productivity, entrepreneurship, and lifelong learning, however, puts a heavier burden on both sides of education, i.e. instructors and students (full-time, part-time, and professional). While positive in emphasizing students’ active learning, the Flipped Classroom model selected as one of the key trends in the Horizon report often means additional work for instructors. In this model, instructors not only have to prepare the study materials for students to go over before the class, such as lecture videos, but also need to plan active learning activities for students during the class time. The Flipped Classroom model also assumes that students should be able to invest enough time outside the classroom to study.

The unfortunate side effect or consequence of this is that those who cannot afford to do so – for example, those who have to work on multiple jobs or have many family obligations, etc. – will suffer and fall behind. Today’s students and workers are now being asked to demonstrate their competencies with what they can produce beyond simply presenting the credit hours that they spent in the classroom. Probably as a result of this, a clear demarcation between work, learning, and personal life seems to be disappearing. “The E-Learning Predictions for 2014 Report”  from EdTech Europe predicts that ‘Learning Record Stores’, which track, record, and quantify an individual’s experiences and progress in both formal and informal learning, will be emerging in step with the need for continuous learning required for today’s job market. EdTech Europe also points out that learning is now being embedded in daily tasks and that we will see a significant increase in the availability and use of casual and informal learning apps both in education but also in the workplace.

C. Quantified Self and Learning Analytics

Among the six emerging technologies in the 2014 Horizon Report Higher Education edition, ‘Quantified Self’ is by far the most interesting new trend. (Other technologies should be pretty familiar to those who have been following the Horizon Report every year, except maybe the 4D printing mentioned in the 3D printing section. If you are looking for the emerging technologies that are on a farther horizon of adoption, check out this article from the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Emerging Technologies, which lists technologies such as screenless display and brain-computer interfaces.)

According to the report, “Quantified Self describes the phenomenon of consumers being able to closely track data that is relevant to their daily activities through the use of technology.” (ACRL TechConnect has covered personal data monitoring and action analytics previously.) Quantified self is enabled by the wearable technology devices, such as Fitbit or Google Glass, and the Mobile Web. Wearable technology devices automatically collect personal data. Fitbit, for example, keeps track of one’s own sleep patterns, steps taken, and calories burned. And the Mobile Web is the platform that can store and present such personal data directly transferred from those devices. Through these devices and the resulting personal data, we get to observe our own behavior in a much more extensive and detailed manner than ever before. Instead of deciding on which part of our life to keep record of, we can now let these devices collect about almost all types of data about ourselves and then see which data would be of any use for us and whether any pattern emerges that we can perhaps utilize for the purpose of self-improvement.

Quantified Self is a notable trend not because it involves an unprecedented technology but because it gives us a glimpse of what our daily lives will be like in the near future, in which many of the emerging technologies that we are just getting used to right now – the mobile, big data, wearable technology – will come together in full bloom. Learning Analytics,’ which the Horizon Report calls “the educational application of ‘big data’” (p.38) and can be thought of as the application of Quantified Self in education, has been making a significant progress already in higher education. By collecting and analyzing the data about student behavior in online courses, learning analytics aims at improving student engagement, providing more personalized learning experience, detecting learning issues, and determining the behavior variables that are the significant indicators of student performance.

While privacy is a natural concern for Quantified Self, it is to be noted that we ourselves often willingly participate in personal data monitoring through the gamified self-tracking apps that can be offensive in other contexts. In her article, “Gamifying the Quantified Self,” Jennifer Whitson writes:

Gamified self-tracking and participatory surveillance applications are seen and embraced as play because they are entered into freely, injecting the spirit of play into otherwise monotonous activities. These gamified self-improvement apps evoke a specific agency—that of an active subject choosing to expose and disclose their otherwise secret selves, selves that can only be made penetrable via the datastreams and algorithms which pin down and make this otherwise unreachable interiority amenable to being operated on and consciously manipulated by the user and shared with others. The fact that these tools are consumer monitoring devices run by corporations that create neoliberal, responsibilized subjectivities become less salient to the user because of this freedom to quit the game at any time. These gamified applications are playthings that can be abandoned at whim, especially if they fail to pleasure, entertain and amuse. In contrast, the case of gamified workplaces exemplifies an entirely different problematic. (p.173; emphasis my own and not by the author)

If libraries and higher education institutions becomes active in monitoring and collecting students’ learning behavior, the success of an endeavor of that kind will depend on how well it creates and provides the sense of play to students for their willing participation. It will be also important for such kind of learning analytics project to offer an opt-out at any time and to keep the private data confidential and anonymous as much as possible.

D. Back to Libraries

The changed format of this year’s Horizon Report with the ‘Key Trends’ and the ‘Significant Challenges’ has shown the forces in play behind the emerging technologies to look out for in higher education much more clearly. A big take-away from this report, I believe, is that in spite of the doubt about the unique value of higher education, the demand will be increasing due to the students’ need to obtain a competitive advantage in entering or re-entering the workforce. And that higher ed institutions will endeavor to create appropriate means and tools to satisfy students’ need of acquiring and demonstrating skills and experience in a way that is appealing to future employers beyond credit-hour based degrees, such as competency-based assessments and a badge system, is another one.

Considering that the pace of change at higher education tends to be slow, this can be an opportunity for academic libraries. Both instructors and students are under constant pressure to innovate and experiment in their teaching and learning processes. Instructors designing the Flipped Classroom model may require a studio where they can record and produce their lecture videos. Students may need to compile portfolios to demonstrate their knowledge and skills for job interviews. Returning adult students may need to acquire the habitual lifelong learning practices with the help from librarians. Local employers and students may mutually benefit from a place where certain co-projects can be tried. As a neutral player on the campus with tech-savvy librarians and knowledgeable staff, libraries can create a place where the most palpable student needs that are yet to be satisfied by individual academic departments or student services are directly addressed. Maker labs, gamified learning or self-tracking modules, and a competency dashboard are all such examples. From the emerging technology trends in higher ed, we see that the learning activities in higher education and academic libraries will be more and more closely tied to the economic imperative of constant innovation.

Academic libraries may even go further and take up the role of leading the changes in higher education. In his blog post for Inside Higher Ed, Joshua Kim suggests exactly this and also nicely sums up the challenges that today’s higher education faces:

  • How do we increase postsecondary productivity while guarding against commodification?
  • How do we increase quality while increasing access?
  • How do we leverage technologies without sacrificing the human element essential for authentic learning?

How will academic libraries be able to lead the changes necessary for higher education to successfully meet these challenges? It is a question that will stay with academic libraries for many years to come.

Query a Google Spreadsheet like a Database with Google Visualization API Query Language

Libraries make much use of spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are easy to create, and most library staff are familiar with how to use them. But they can quickly get unwieldy as more and more data are entered. The more rows and columns a spreadsheet has, the more difficult it is to browse and quickly identify specific information. Creating a searchable web application with a database at the back-end is a good solution since it will let users to quickly perform a custom search and filter out unnecessary information. But due to the staff time and expertise it requires, creating a full-fledged searchable web database application is not always a feasible option at many libraries.

Creating a MS Access custom database or using a free service such as Zoho can be an alternative to creating a searchable web database application. But providing a read-only view for MS Access database can be tricky although possible. MS Access is also software locally installed in each PC and therefore not necessarily available for the library staff when they are not with their work PCs on which MS Access is installed. Zoho Creator offers a way to easily convert a spreadsheet into a database, but its free version service has very limited features such as maximum 3 users, 1,000 records, and 200 MB storage.

Google Visualization API Query Language provides a quick and easy way to query a Google spreadsheet and return and display a selective set of data without actually converting a spreadsheet into a database. You can display the query result in the form of a HTML table, which can be served as a stand-alone webpage. All you have to do is to construct a custom URL.

A free version of Google spreadsheet has a limit in size and complexity. For example, one free Google spreadsheet can have no more than 400, 000 total cells. But you can purchase more Google Drive storage and also query multiple Google spreadsheets (or even your own custom databases) by using Google Visualization API Query Language and Google Chart Libraries together.  (This will be the topic of my next post. You can also see the examples of using Google Chart Libraries and Google Visualization API Query Language together in my presentation slides at the end of this post.)

In this post, I will explain the parameters of Google Visualization API Query Language and how to construct a custom URL that will query, return, and display a selective set of data in the form of an HTML page.

A. Display a Google Spreadsheet as an HTML page

The first step is to identify the URL of the Google spreadsheet of your choice.

The URL below opens up the third sheet (Sheet 3) of a specific Google spreadsheet. There are two parameters you need to pay attention inside the URL: key and gid.


This breaks down the parameters in a way that is easier to view:

  • https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc


Key is a unique identifier to each Google spreadsheet. So you need to use that to cretee a custom URL later that will query and display the data in this spreadsheet. Gid specifies which sheet in the spreadsheet you are opening up. The gid for the first sheet is 0; the gid for the third sheet is 2.

Screen Shot 2013-11-27 at 9.44.29 AM

Let’s first see how Google Visualization API returns the spreadsheet data as a DataTable object. This is only for those who are curious about what goes on behind the scenes. You can see that for this view, the URL is slightly different but the values of the key and the gid parameter stay the same.


Screen Shot 2013-11-27 at 9.56.03 AM

In order to display the same result as an independent HTML page, all you need to do is to take the key and the gid parameter values of your own Google spreadsheet and construct the custom URL following the same pattern shown below.

  • https://spreadsheets.google.com


Screen Shot 2013-11-27 at 9.59.11 AM

By the way, if the URL you created doesn’t work, it is probably because you have not encoded it properly. Try this handy URL encoder/decoder page to encode it by hand or you can use JavaScript encodeURIComponent() function.
Also if you want the URL to display the query result without people logging into Google Drive first, make sure to set the permission setting of the spreadsheet to be public. On the other hand, if you need to control access to the spreadsheet only to a number of users, you have to remind your users to first go to Google Drive webpage and log in with their Google account before clicking your URLs. Only when the users are logged into Google Drive, they will be able see the query result.

B. How to Query a Google Spreadsheet

We have seen how to create a URL to show an entire sheet of a Google spreadsheet as an HTML page above. Now let’s do some querying, so that we can pick and choose what data the table is going to display instead of the whole sheet. That’s where the Query Language comes in handy.

Here is an example spreadsheet with over 50 columns and 500 rows.

  • https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?


Screen Shot 2013-11-27 at 10.15.41 AM

What I want to do is to show only column B, C, D, F where C contains ‘Florida.’ How do I do this? Remember the URL we created to show the entire sheet above?

  • https://spreadsheets.google.com/tq?tqx=out:html&tq=&key=___&gid=___

There we had no value for the tq parameter. This is where we insert our query.

Google Visualization API Query Language is pretty much the same as SQL. So if you are familiar with SQL, forming a query is dead simple. If you aren’t SQL is also easy to learn.

  • The query should be written like this:
  • After encoding it properly, you get something like this:
  • Add it to the tq parameter and don’t forget to also specify the key:

I am omitting the gid parameter here because there is only one sheet in this spreadsheet but you can add it if you would like. You can also omit it if the sheet you want is the first sheet. Ta-da!

Screen Shot 2013-11-27 at 10.26.13 AM

Compare this with the original spreadsheet view. I am sure you can appreciate how the small effort put into creating a URL pays back in terms of viewing an unwieldy large spreadsheet manageable.

You can also easily incorporate functions such as count() or sum() into your query to get an overview of the data you have in the spreadsheet.

  • select D,F count(C) where (B contains ‘author name’) group by D, F

For example, this query above shows how many articles a specific author published per year in each journal. The screenshot of the result is below and you can see it for yourself here: https://spreadsheets.google.com/tq?tqx=out:html&tq=select+D,F,count(C)+where+%28B+contains+%27Agoulnik%27%29+group+by+D,F&key=0AqAPbBT_k2VUdEtXYXdLdjM0TXY1YUVhMk9jeUQ0NkE

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Take this spread sheet as another example.


This simple query below displays the library budget by year. For those who are unfamiliar with ‘pivot‘, pivot table is a data summarization tool. The query below asks the spreadsheet to calculate the total of all the values in the B column (Budget amount for each category) by the values found in the C column (Years).

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This is another example of querying the spreadsheet connected to my library’s Literature Search request form. The following query asks the spreadsheet to count the number of literature search requests by Research Topic (=column I) that were received in 2011 (=column G) grouped by the values in the column C, i.e. College of Medicine Faculty or College of Medicine Staff.

  • select C, count(I) where (G contains ’2011′) group by C


C. More Querying Options

There are many more things you can do with a custom query. Google has an extensive documentation that is easy to follow: https://developers.google.com/chart/interactive/docs/querylanguage#Language_Syntax

These are just a few examples.

    : Order the results in the descending order of the column of your choice. Without ‘DESC,’ the result will be listed in the ascending order.
  • LIMIT 5
    : Limit the number of results. Combined with ‘Order by’ you can quickly filter the results by the most recent or the oldest items.

My presentation slides given at the 2013 LITA Forum below includes more detailed information about Google Visualization API Query Language, parameters, and other options as well as how to use Google Chart Libraries in combination with Google Visualization API Query Language for data visualization, which is the topic of my next post.

Happy querying Google Spreadsheet!


Come to Our Meet-up at #LITAforum!

Are you interested in writing a guest post or becoming a regular contributor to ACRL TechConnect blog? Or, do you blog about library technology?

Three of ACRL TechConnect blog authors, Bohyun, Eric, and Margaret, will be at LITA Forum this year.  (Two of us are on the LITA Forum planning committee and yes, we are very active at LITA as well as in ACRL! :)

So, we decided to have a small meet-up!

Come chat with us about everyday challenges and solutions in library technology over drinks.

This is an informal meet-up & All are welcome!

TechConnect Meet-up at #LITAforum

View NRHA Louisville Activities Map in a larger map


Redesigning the Item Record Summary View in a Library Catalog and a Discovery Interface

A. Oh, the Library Catalog

Almost all librarians have a love-hate relationship with their library catalogs (OPAC), which are used by library patrons. Interestingly enough, I hear a lot more complaints about the library catalog from librarians than patrons. Sometimes it is about the catalog missing certain information that should be there for patrons. But many other times, it’s about how crowded the search results display looks. We actually all want a clean-looking, easy-to-navigate, and efficient-to-use library catalog. But of course, it is much easier to complain than to come up with an viable alternative.

Aaron Schmidt has recently put forth an alternative design for a library item record. In his blog post, he suggests a library catalog shifts its focus from the bibliographic information (or metadata if not a book) of a library item to a patron’s tasks performed in relation to the library item so that the catalog functions more as “a tool that prioritizes helping people accomplish their tasks, whereby bibliographic data exists quietly in the background and is exposed only when useful.” This is a great point. Throwing all the information at once to a user only overwhelms her/him. Schmidt’s sketch provides a good starting point to rethink how to design the library catalog’s search results display.

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From the blog post, “Catalog Design” by Aaron Schmidt

B. Thinking about Alternative Display Design

The example above is, of course, too simple to apply to the library catalog of an academic library straight away. For an usual academic library patron to determine whether s/he wants to either check out or reserve the item, s/he is likely to need a little more information than the book title, the author, and the book image. For example, students who look for textbooks, the edition information as well as the year of publication are important. But I take it that Schmidt’s point was to encourage more librarians to think about alternative designs for the library catalog rather than simply compare what is available and pick what seems to be the best among those.

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 1.44.36 PM

Florida International University Library Catalog – Discovery layer, Mango, provided by Florida Virtual Campus

Granted that there may be limitations in how much we can customize the search results display of a library catalog. But that is not a reason to stop thinking about what the optimal display design would be for the library catalog search results. Sketching alternatives can be in itself a good exercise in evaluating the usability of an information system even if not all of your design can be implemented.

Furthermore, more and more libraries are implementing a discovery layer over their library catalogs, which provides much more room to customize the display of search results than the traditional library catalog. Open source discovery systems such as Blacklight or VuFind provides great flexibility in customizing the search results display. Even proprietary discovery products such as Primo, EDS, Summon offer a level of customization by the libraries.

Below, I will discuss some principles to follow in sketching alternative designs for search results in a library catalog, present some of my own sketches, and show other examples implemented by other libraries or websites.

C. Principles

So, if we want to improve the item record summary display to be more user-friendly, where can we start and what kind of principles should we follow? These are the principles that I followed in coming up with my own design:

  • De-clutter.
  • Reveal just enough information that is essential to determine the next action.
  • Highlight the next action.
  • Shorten texts.

These are not new principles. They are widely discussed and followed by many web designers including librarians who participate in their libraries’ website re-design. But we rarely apply these to the library catalog because we think that the catalog is somehow beyond our control. This is not necessarily the case, however. Many libraries implement discovery layers to give a completely different and improved look from that of their ILS-es’ default display.

Creating a satisfactory design on one’s own instead of simply pointing out what doesn’t work or look good in existing designs is surprisingly hard but also a refreshing challenge. It also brings about the positive shift of focus in thinking about a library catalog from “What is the problem in the catalog?” to “What is a problem and what can we change to solve the problem?”

Below I will show my own sketches for an item record summary view for the library catalog search results. These are clearly a combination of many other designs that I found inspiring in other library catalogs. (I will provide the source of those elements later in this post.) I tried to mix and revise them so that the result would follow those four principles above as closely as possible. Check them out and also try creating your own sketches. (I used Photoshop for creating my sketches.)

D. My Own Sketches

Here is the basic book record summary view. What I tried to do here is giving just enough information for the next action but not more than that: title, author, type, year, publisher, number of library copies and holds. The next action for a patron is to check the item out. On the other hand, undecided patrons will click the title to see the detailed item record or have the detailed item record to be texted, printed, e-mailed, or to be used in other ways.

(1) A book item record

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.46.38 PM

This is a record of a book that has an available copy to check out. Only when a patron decides to check out the item, the next set of information relevant to that action – the item location and the call number – is shown.

(2) With the check-out button clicked

check out box open

If no copy is available for check-out, the best way to display the item is to signal that check-out is not possible and to highlight an alternative action. You can either do this by graying out the check-out button or by hiding the button itself.

Many assume that adding more information would automatically increase the usability of a website. While there are cases in which this could be true, often a better option is to reveal information only when it is relevant.

I decided to gray out the check-out button when there is no available copy and display the reserve button, so that patrons can place a hold. Information about how many copies the library has and how many holds are placed (“1 hold / 1 copy”) would help a patron to decide if they want to reserve the book or not.

(3) A book item record when check-out is not available

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.34.54 PM

I also sketched two other records: one for an e-Book without the cover image and the other with the cover image. Since the appropriate action in this case is reading online, a different button is shown. You may place the ‘Requires Login’ text or simply omit it because most patrons will understand that they will have to log in to read a library e-book and also the read-online button will itself prompt log in once clicked anyway.

(4) An e-book item record without a book cover

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.35.54 PM

(5) An e-book item record with a book cover

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.48.33 PM

(6) When the ‘Read Online’ button is clicked, an e-book item record with multiple links/providers

When there are multiple options for one electronic resource, those options can be presented in a similar way in which multiple copies of a physical book are shown.

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.35.22 PM

(6) A downloadable e-book item record

For a downloadable resource, changing the name of the button to ‘download’ is much more informative.

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.35.13 PM

(7) An e-journal item record

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.47.31 PM

(7) When the ‘Read Online’ button is clicked, an e-journal item record with multiple links/providers

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 12.41.56 PM

E. Inspirations

Needless to say, I did not come up with my sketches from scratch. Here are the library catalogs whose item record summary view inspired me.


Toronto Public Library catalog has an excellent item record summary view, which I used as a base for my own sketches. It provides just enough information for the summary view. The title is hyperlinked to the detailed item record, and the summary view displays the material type and the year in bod for emphasis. The big green button also clearly shows the next action to take. It also does away with unnecessary labels that are common in library catalog such as ‘Author:’ ‘Published:’ ‘Location:’ ‘Link:.’

User Experience Designer Ryan Feely, who worked on Toronto Public Library’s catalog search interface, pointed out the difference between a link and an action in his 2009 presentation “Toronto Public Library Website User Experience Results and Recommendations.” Actions need to be highlighted as a button or in some similar design to stand out to users (slide 65). And ideally, only the actions available for a given item should be displayed.

Another good point which Feely makes (slide 24) is that an icon is often the center of attention and so a different icon should be used to signify different type of materials such as a DVD or an e-Journal. Below are the icons that Toronto Public Library uses for various types of library materials that do not have unique item images. These are much more informative than the common “No image available” icon.

eAudiobooke-journal eMusic

vinyl VHS eVideo

University of Toronto Libraries has recently redesigned their library catalog to be completely responsive. Their item record summary view in the catalog is brief and clear. Each record in the summary view also uses a red and a green icon that helps patrons to determine the availability of an item quickly. The icons for citing, printing, e-mailing, or texting the item record that often show up in the catalog are hidden in the options icon at the bottom right corner. When the mouse hovers over, a variety of choices appear.

Screen Shot 2013-10-09 at 4.45.33 PM


Richland Library’s catalog displays library items in a grid as a default, which makes the catalog more closely resemble an online bookstore or shopping website. Patrons can also change the view to have more details shown with or without the item image. The item record summary view in the default grid view is brief and to the point. The main type of patron action, such as Hold or Download, is clearly differentiated from other links as an orange button.


Screen Shot 2013-10-13 at 8.33.46 PM

Standford University Library offers a grid view (although not as the default like Richland Library). The grid view is very succinct with the item title, call number, availability information in the form of a green checkmark, and the item location.

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What is interesting about Stanford University Library catalog (using Blacklight) is that when a patron hovers its mouse over an item in the grid view, the item image displays the preview link. And when clicked, a more detailed information is shown as an overlay.

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Brigham Young University completely customized the user interface of the Primo product from ExLibris.


And University of Michigan Library customized the search result display of the Summon product from SerialsSolutions.

Screen Shot 2013-10-14 at 11.16.49 PM

Here are some other item record summary views that are also fairly straightforward and uncluttered but can be improved further.

Sacramento Public Library uses the open source discovery system, VuFind, with little customization.


I have not done an extensive survey of library catalogs to see which one has the best item record summary view. But it seemed to me that in general academic libraries are more likely to provide more information than necessary in the item record summary view and also to require patrons to click a link instead of displaying relevant information right away. For example, the ‘Check availability’ link that is shown in many library catalogs is better when it is replaced by the actual availability status of ‘available’ or ‘checked out.’ Similarly, the ‘Full-text online’ or ‘Available online’ link may be clearer with an button titled ‘Read online’ or ‘Access online.’

F. Challenges and Strategies

The biggest challenge in designing the item record summary view is to strike the balance between too little information and too much information about the item. Too little information will require patrons to review the detailed item record just to identify if the item is the one they are looking for or not.

Since librarians know many features of the library catalog, they tend to err on the side of throwing all available features into the item record summary view. But too much information not only overwhelms patrons and but also makes it hard for them to locate the most relevant information at that stage and to identify the next available action. Any information irrelevant to a given task is no more than noise to a patron.

This is not a problem unique to a library catalog but generally applicable to any system that displays search results. In their book, Designing the Search Experience , Tony Russell-Rose and Tyler Tate describes this as achieving ‘the optimal level of detail.’ (p.130)

Useful strategies for achieving the optimal level of detail for the item summary view in the case of the library catalog include:

  • Removing all unnecessary labels
  • Using appropriate visual cues to make the record less text-heavy
  • Highlighting next logical action(s) and information relevant to that action
  • Systematically guiding a patron to the actions that are relevant to a given item and her/his task in hand

Large online shopping websites, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and eBay all make a good use of these strategies. There are no labels such as ‘price,’ ‘shipping,’ ‘review,’ etc. Amazon highlights the price and the user reviews most since those are the two most deciding factors for consumers in their browsing stage. Amazon only offers enough information for a shopper to determine if s/he is further interested in purchasing the item. So there is not even the Buy button in the summary view. Once a shopper clicks the item title link and views the detailed item record, then the buying options and the ‘Add to Cart’ button are displayed prominently.

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Barnes & Noble’s default display for search results is the grid view, and the item record summary view offers only the most essential information – the item title, material type, price, and the user ratings.

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eBay’s item record summary view also offers only the most essential information, the highest bid and the time left, while people are browsing the site deciding whether to check out the item in further detail or not.

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G. More Things to Consider

An item record summary view, which we have discussed so far, is surely the main part of the search results page. But it is only a small part of the search results display and even a smaller part of the library catalog. Optimizing the search results page, for example, entails not just re-designing the item record summary view but choosing and designing many other elements of the page such as organizing the filtering options on the left and deciding on the default and optional views. Determining the content and the display of the detailed item record is another big part of creating a user-friendly library catalog. If you are interested in this topic, Tony Russell-Rose and Tyler Tate’s book Designing the Search Experience (2013) provides an excellent overview.

Librarians are professionals trained in many uses of a searchable database, a known item search, exploring and browsing, a search with incomplete details, compiling a set of search results, locating a certain type of items only by location, type, subject, etc. But since our work is also on the operation side of a library, we often make the mistake of regarding the library catalog as one huge inventory system that should hold and display all the acquisition, cataloging, and holdings information data of the library collection. But library patrons are rarely interested in seeing such data. They are interested in identifying relevant library items and using them. All the other information is simply a guide to achieving this ultimate goal, and the library catalog is another tool in their many toolboxes.

Online shopping sites optimize their catalog to make purchase as efficient and simple as possible. Both libraries and online shopping sites share the common interests of guiding the users to one ultimate task – identifying an appropriate item for the final borrowing or access/purchase. For creating user-oriented library catalog sketches, it is helpful to check out how non-library websites are displaying their search results as well.

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Once you start looking other examples, you will realize that there are very many ways to display search results and you will soon want to sketch your own alternative design for the search results display in the library catalog and the discovery system. What do you think would be the level of optimum detail for library items in the library catalog or the discovery interface?

Further Reading



10 Practical Tips for Compiling Your Promotion or Tenure File


Flickr image by Frederic Bisson http://www.flickr.com/photos/38712296@N07/3604417507/

If you work at an academic library, you may count as faculty. Whether the faculty status comes with a tenure track or not, it usually entails a more complicated procedure for promotion than the professional staff status.  At some libraries, the promotion policy and procedure is well documented, and a lot of help and guidance are given to those who are new to the process. At other libraries, on the other hand, there may be less help available and the procedure documentation can be not quite clear. I recently had the experience of compiling my promotion file. I thought that creating a promotion file would not be too difficult since I have been collecting most of my academic and professional activities. But this was not the case at all. Looking back, there are many things I would have done differently to make the process less stressful.

While this post does not really cover a technology topic that we at ACRL TechConnect usually write about, applying for promotion and/or tenure is something that many academic librarians go through. So I wanted to share some lessons that I learned from my first-time experience of crating a promotion binder as a non-tenure track faculty.

Please bear in mind that the actual process of assembling your promotion or tenure file can differ depending on your institution. At my university, everything has to be printed and filed in a binder and multiple copies of such a binder are required for the use of the tenure and promotion committee. At some places, librarians may only need to print all documentation but don’t need to actually create a binder. At other places, you may do everything online using a system such as Digital Measures, Sedona or Interfolio, and you do not have to deal with papers or binders at all. Be aware that if you do have to deal with actual photocopying, filing, and creating a binder, there will be some additional challenges.

Also my experience described here was for promotion, not tenure. If you are applying for a tenure, see these posts that may be helpful:

1. Get a copy of the promotion and tenure policy manual of your library and institution.

In my case, this was not possible since my library as well as the College of Medicine, to which the library belongs, did not have the promotion policy until very recently. But if you work at an established academic library, there will be a promotion/tenure procedure and policy manual for librarians. Some of the manual may refer to the institution’s faculty promotion and tenure policy manual as well. So get a copy of both and make sure to find out under which category librarians fall. You may count as non-tenured faculty, tenure-track faculty, or simply professionals. You may also belong to an academic department and a specific college, or you may belong to simply your library which counts as a college with a library dean.

You do not have to read the manual as soon as you start working. It will certainly not be a gripping read. But do get a copy and file it in your binder. (It is good to have a binder for promotion-related records even if you do not actually have to create a promotion binder yourself or everything can be filed electronically.)

2. Know when you become eligible for the application for promotion/tenure and what the criteria are.

Once you obtain a copy of your library’s promotion/tenure policy, take a quick look at the section that specifies how many years of work is required for you to apply for promotion or tenure and what the promotion / tenure criteria are. An example of  the rankings of non-tenure track librarians at an academic library are: Instructor, Assistant, Associate, and University Librarian. This mirrors the academic faculty rankings of Instructor, Assistant, Associate, and Full Professor. But again, your institution may have a different system. Each level of promotion will have a minimum number of years required, such as 2 years for the promotion from Instructor to Assistant Librarian, and specific criteria applied to that type of promotion. This is good to know early in your career, so that you can coordinate and organize your academic and professional activities to match what your institution expects its librarians to perform as much as possible.

3. Ask those who went through the same process already.

Needless to day, the most helpful advice comes from those librarians who went through the same process. They have a wealth of knowledge to share. So don’t hesitate to ask them what the good preparatory steps are for future application. Even if you have a very general question, they will always point out what to pay attention to in advance.

Also at some libraries, the promotion and tenure committee holds an annual workshop for those who are interested in submitting an application. Even if you are not yet planning to apply and it seems way too early to even consider such a thing, it may be a good idea to attend one just to get an overview. The committee is very knowledgeable about the whole process and consists of librarians experienced in the promotion and tenure process.

4. Collect and gather documentation under the same categories that your application file requires.

The promotion file can require a lot of documentation that you may neglect to collect on a daily basis. For example, I never bothered to keep track of the committee appointment notification e-mails, and the only reason I saved the conference program booklets were because of a colleague’s advice that I got to save them for the promotion binder in the future as the proof of attendance.  (It would have never dawned on me. And even then, I lost some program booklets for conferences I attended.) This is not a good thing.

Since there was no official promotion policy for my library when I started, I simply created a binder and filed anything and everything that might be relevant to the promotion file some day. However, over the last five years, this binder got extremely fat. This is also not a good practice. When I needed those documentation to actually create and organize my promotion file, it was a mess. It was good that I had at least quite a bit of documentation saved. But I had to look through all of them again because they belonged to different categories and the dates were all mixed up.

So, it is highly recommended that you should check the categories of the application file that your library/institution requires before creating a binder. Do not just throw things into a binder or a drawer if possible. Make separate binders or drawers under the same categories that your application file requires such as publication, presentation, university service, community service, professional services, etc.  Also organize the documentation by year and keep the list of items in each category. Add to the list every time you file something. Pretend that you are doing this for your work, not for your promotion, to motivate yourself.

Depending on your preference and the way your institution handles the documentation for your promotion or tenure application, it may make a better sense to scan and organize everything in a digital form as long as the original document is not required. You can use citation management system such as Mendeley or Refworks to keep the copies of all your publications for example. These will easily generate the up-to-date bibliography of your publications for your CV. If your institution uses a system that keeps track of faculty’s research, grant, publication, teaching, and service activities such as Digital Measures or Sedona, those systems may suit you better as you can keep track of more types of activities than just publications. You can also keep a personal digital archive of everything that will go into your application file either on your local computer or on your Dropbox, Google Drive, or SkyDrive account. The key is to save and organize when you have something that would count towards promotion and tenure in hand “right away.”

One more thing. If you publish a book chapter, depending on the situation, you may not get the copy of the book or the final version of your book chapter as a PDF from your editor or publisher. This is no big deal until you have to ask your college to do a rush ILL for you. So take time in advance to obtain at least one hard copy or  the finished PDF version of your publication particularly in the case of book chapters.

5. What do I put into my promotion file or tenure dossier?

There are common items such as personal statement, CV, publications, and services, which are specified in the promotion/tenure policy manual. But some of the things that may not belong to these categories or that make you wonder if it is worth putting into your promotion file. It really depends on what else you have it in your application file. If your application file is strong enough, you may skip things like miscellaneous talks that you gave or newsletter articles that you wrote for a regional professional organization. But ask a colleague for advice first and check if your file looks balanced in all areas.

6. Make sure to keep documentation for projects that only lived a short life.

Another thing to keep in mind is to keep track of all the projects you worked on. As time goes on, you may forget some of the work you did. If you create a website, a LibGuide, a database application, a section in the staff intranet, etc., some of those may last a long time, but others may get used only for a while and then disappear or be removed. Once disappeared projects are hard to show in your file as part of your work and achievement unless you documented the final project result when it was up and running and being used. So take the screenshots, print out the color copies of those screenshots, and keep the record of the dates during which you worked on the project and of the date on which the project result was released, implemented etc.

If you work in technology, you may have more of this type of work than academic publications. Check your library’s promotion and tenure policy manual to see if it has the category of ‘Creative Works’ or something similar under which you can add these items.

If you are assembling your binder right now, and some projects you worked on are completely gone, check the WayBack machine from the Internet Archive and see if you can find an archived copy. Not always available, but if you don’t have anything else, this may the only way to find some evidence of your work that you can document.

7. Update your CV and the list of Continuing Education activities on a regular basis.

Ideally, you will be doing this every year when you do your performance review. But it may not be required. Updating your CV is certainly not the most exciting thing to do, but it must be done. Over the last five years, I have done CV updates only when it was required for accreditation purposes (which requires the current CVs of all faculty). This was better than not having updated my CV at all for sure. But since I did not really update it with the promotion application in mind, when I needed to create one for the promotion application file, I had to redo the CV moving items and organizing them in different categories. So make sure to check your library’s or your institution’s faculty promotion/tenure policy manual. The manual includes the format of CV that the dossier needs to adopt. Use that format for your CV and update it every year. (I think that during the Christmas holidays may be a good time for this kind of task from now on for me.)

Some people keep the most up-to-date CV in their Dropbox’s public folder, and that is also a good idea if you have a website and share your CV there.

Some of the systems I have mentioned earlier – Digital Measure and Sedona – also allow you to create a custom template which you can utilize for the promotion/tenure application purpose. If the system has been in use for many years in your institution, there may be  a pre-made template for promotion and tenure purposes.

8. Make sure to collect all appointment e-mails to committees and other types of services you do.

Keeping the records of all services is a tricky thing as we tend to pay little attention to the appointment e-mails to committees or other types of services that we perform for universities or professional organizations. I assumed that they were all in my inbox somewhere and did not properly organize them. As a result, I had to spend hours looking for them when I was compiling my binder.

This can be easily avoided if you keep a well-organized e-mail archive where you file e-mails as they come in. Sometimes, I found that I either lost the appointment e-mail or never received one. You can file other email correspondences as documentation for that service. But the official appointment e-mail would certainly be better in this case.

This also reminded me that I should write thank-you e-mails to the members of my committees that I chaired and to the committee chairs I worked with as a board member of ALA New Members Round Table. It is always nice to file a letter of appreciation rather than a letter of appointment. And as a committee chair or a board member, it should be something that you do without being asked. By sending these thank you e-mails, your committee members or chairs can file and use them when they need for their performance, promotion, or tenure review without requesting and waiting.

9. Check the timeline dates for the application.

Universities and colleges usually have a set of deadlines you have to meet in order for you to be considered for promotion or tenure. For example, you may have to have a meeting by a certain date with your supervisor or your library dean and get the green light to go for promotion. Your supervisor may have to file an official memorandum to the dean’s office until a certain date as a formal notification. Your department chair (if you are appointed to an academic department) may have to receive a memo about your application by a certain date. Your promotion file may have to be submitted to your academic department’s Promotion and Tenure committee by some time in advance before it gets forwarded to the Promotion and Tenure committee of the college. The list goes on and on. These deadlines are hard to keep tabs on but have to be tracked carefully not to miss them.

10. Plan ahead

I had to compile and create my promotion binder and three copies within a week’s notice, but this is a very unusual case due to special circumstances.  Something like this is unlikely to happen to you, but remember that creating the whole application file will take much more time than you imagine. I could have done some of the sorting out and organizing documentation work myself in advance but delayed it because there was a web data application which I was developing for my library. Looking back, I should have at least started working on the promotion file even if things were unclear and even if I had little time to spare outside of my ongoing work projects. It would have given me a much more accurate sense of how much time I will have to spend eventually on the whole dossier.

Also remember to request evaluation letters in advance. This was the most crazy part for me because I was literally given one week to request and get letters from internal and external reviewers. Asking people of a letter in a week’s time is close to asking for the impossible particularly if the reviewers are outside of your institution and have to be contacted not by you but by a third party.  I was very lucky to get all the signed PDF letters in time, but I do not recommend this kind of experience to anyone.

Plan ahead and plan well in advance. Find out whether you need letters from internal or external reviewers, how many, and what the letters need to cover. Make sure to create a list of colleagues you can request a letter from who are familiar with your work. When you request a letter, make sure to highlight the promotion or tenure criteria and what the letter needs to address, so that letter writers can quickly see what they need to focus on when they review your work. If there are any supplementary materials such as publications, book chapters, presentations, etc., make sure to forward them as well along with your CV and statement.

Lastly, if Your Application File Must be In Print…

You are lucky if you have the option to submit everything electronically or to simply submit the documentation to someone who will do the rest of work such as photocopying, filing, making binders, etc. But your institution may require the application file to be submitted in print, in multiple copies sometimes. And you may be responsible for creating those binders and copies yourself. I had to submit 4 binders, each of which exactly identical, and I was the one who had to do all the photocopying, punching holes, and filing them into a binder. I can tell you photocopying and punching holes for the documents that fill up a very thick binder and doing that multiple times was not exactly inspiring work. If this is your case as well, I recommend creating one binder as a master copy and using the professional photocopy/binding service to create copies. It would have been so much better for my sanity. In my case, the time was too short for me to create one master copy and then bring it to the outside service to make additional copies. So plan ahead and make sure you have time to use outside service. I highly recommend not using your own labor for photocopying and filing.

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If you have any extra tips or experience to share about the promotion or tenure process at an academic library, please share them in the comments section. Hopefully in the future, all institutions will allow people to file their documentation electronically. There are also tools such as Interfolio (http://www.interfolio.com/) that you can use, which is particularly convenient for those who has to get external letters that directly have to go to the tenure and promotion committee.

Are there any other tools? Please share them in the comments section as well. Best of luck to all librarians going for promotion and tenure!


Fear No Longer Regular Expressions

Regex, it’s your friend

You may have heard the term, “regular expressions” before. If you have, you will know that it usually comes in a notation that is quite hard to make out like this:

(?=^[0-5\- ]+$)(?!.*0123)\d{3}-\d{3,4}-\d{4}

Despite its appearance, regular expressions (regex) is an extremely useful tool to clean up and/or manipulate textual data.  I will show you an example that is easy to understand. Don’t worry if you can’t make sense of the regex above. We can talk about the crazy metacharacters and other confusing regex notations later. But hopefully, this example will help you appreciate the power of regex and give you some ideas of how to make use of regex to make your everyday library work easier.

What regex can do for you – an example

I looked for the zipcodes for all cities in Miami-Dade County and found a very nice PDF online (http://www.miamifocusgroup.com/usertpl/1vg116-three-column/miami-dade-zip-codes-and-map.pdf). But when I copy and paste the text from the PDF file to my text editor (Sublime), the format immediately goes haywire. The county name, ‘Miami-Dade,’ which should be in one line becomes three lines, each of which lists Miami, -, Dade.

Ugh, right? I do not like this one bit.  So let’s fix this using regular expressions.

(**Click the images to bring up the larger version.)

Screen Shot 2013-07-24 at 1.43.19 PM

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Like many text editors, Sublime offers the find/replace with regex feature. This is a much powerful tool than the usual find/replace in MS Word, for example, because it allows you to match many complex cases that fit a pattern. Regular expressions lets you specify that pattern.

In this example, I capture the three lines each saying Miami,-,Dade with this regex:


When I enter this into the ‘Find What’ field, Sublime starts highlighting all the matches.  I am sure you already guessed that \n means a new line. Now let me enter Miami-Dade in the ‘Replace With’ field and hit ‘Replace All.’

Screen Shot 2013-07-24 at 2.11.43 PM

As you can see below, things are much better now. But I  want each set of three lines – Miami-Dade, zipcode, and city – to be one line and each element to be separated by comma and a space such as ‘Miami-Dade, 33010, Hialeah’. So let’s do some more magic with regex.

Screen Shot 2013-07-24 at 2.18.17 PM

How do I describe the pattern of three lines – Miami-Dade, zipcode, and city? When I look at the PDF, I notice that the zipcode is a 5 digit number and the city name consists of alphabet characters and space. I don’t see any hypen or comma in the city name in this particular case. And the first line is always ‘Miami-Dade.” So the following regular expression captures this pattern.

Miami-Dade\n\d{5}\n[A-Za-z ]+

Can you guess what this means? You already know that \n means a new line. \d{5} means a 5 digit number. So it will match 33013, 33149, 98765, or any number that consists of five digits.  [A-Za-z ] means any alphabet character either in upper or lower case or space (N.B. Note the space at the end right before ‘]’).

Anything that goes inside [ ] is one character. Just like \d is one digit. So I need to specify how many of the characters are to be matched. if I put {5}, as I did in \d{5}, it will only match a city name that has five characters like ‘Miami,’ The pattern should match any length of city name as long as it is not zero. The + sign does that. [A-Za-z ]+ means that any alphabet character either in upper or lower case or space should appear at least or more than once. (N.B. * and ? are also quantifiers like +. See the metacharacter table below to find out what they do.)

Now I hit the “Find” button, and we can see the pattern worked as I intended. Hurrah!

Screen Shot 2013-07-24 at 2.24.47 PM

Now, let’s make these three lines one line each. One great thing about regex is that you can refer back to matched items. This is really useful for text manipulation. But in order to use the backreference feature in regex, we have to group the items with parentheses. So let’s change our regex to something like this:

(Miami-Dade)\n\(d{5})\n([A-Za-z ]+)

This regex shows three groups separated by a new line (\n). You will see that Sublime still matches the same three line sets in the text file. But now that we have grouped the units we want – county name, zipcode, and city name – we can refer back to them in the ‘Replace With’ field. There were three units, and each unit can be referred by backslash and the order of appearance. So the county name is \1, zipcode is \2, and the city name is \3. Since we want them to be all in one line and separated by a comma and a space, the following expression will work for our purpose. (N.B. Usually you can have up to nine backreferences in total from \1 to\9. So if you want to backreference the later group, you can opt not to create a backreference from a group by using (?: ) instead of (). )

\1, \2, \3

Do a few Replaces and then if satisfied, hit ‘Replace All’.

Ta-da! It’s magic.

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Regex Metacharacters

Regex notations look a bit funky. But it’s worth learning them since they enable you to specify a general pattern that can match many different cases that you cannot catch without the regular expression.

We have already learned the four regex metacharacters: \n, \d, { }, (). Not surprisingly, there are many more beyond these. Below is a pretty extensive list of regex metacharacters, which I borrowed from the regex tutorial here: http://www.hscripts.com/tutorials/regular-expression/metacharacter-list.php . I also highly recommend this one-page Regex cheat sheet from MIT (http://web.mit.edu/hackl/www/lab/turkshop/slides/regex-cheatsheet.pdf).

Note that \w will match not only a alphabetical character but also an underscore and a number. For example, \w+ matches Little999Prince_1892. Also remember that a small number of regular expression notations can vary depending on what programming language you use such as Perl, JavaScript, PHP, Ruby, or Python.

Metacharacter Description
\ Specifies the next character as either a special character, a literal, a back reference, or an octal escape.
^ Matches the position at the beginning of the input string.
$ Matches the position at the end of the input string.
* Matches the preceding subexpression zero or more times.
+ Matches the preceding subexpression one or more times.
? Matches the preceding subexpression zero or one time.
{n} Matches exactly n times, where n is a non-negative integer.
{n,} Matches at least n times, n is a non-negative integer.
{n,m} Matches at least n and at most m times, where m and n are non-negative integers and n <= m.
. Matches any single character except “\n”.
[xyz] A character set. Matches any one of the enclosed characters.
x|y Matches either x or y.
[^xyz] A negative character set. Matches any character not enclosed.
[a-z] A range of characters. Matches any character in the specified range.
[^a-z] A negative range characters. Matches any character not in the specified range.
\b Matches a word boundary, that is, the position between a word and a space.
\B Matches a nonword boundary. ‘er\B’ matches the ‘er’ in “verb” but not the ‘er’ in “never”.
\d Matches a digit character.
\D Matches a non-digit character.
\f Matches a form-feed character.
\n Matches a newline character.
\r Matches a carriage return character.
\s Matches any whitespace character including space, tab, form-feed, etc.
\S Matches any non-whitespace character.
\t Matches a tab character.
\v Matches a vertical tab character.
\w Matches any word character including underscore.
\W Matches any non-word character.
\un Matches n, where n is a Unicode character expressed as four hexadecimal digits. For example, \u00A9 matches the copyright symbol
Matching modes

You also need to know about the Regex matching modes. In order to use these modes, you write your regex as shown above, and then at the end you add one or more of these modes. Note that in text editors, these options often appear as checkboxes and may apply without you doing anything by default.

For example, [d]\w+[g] will match only the three lower case words in ding DONG dang DING dong DANG. On the other hand, [d]\w+[g]/i will match all six words whether they are in the upper or the lower case.

Look-ahead and Look-behind

There are also the ‘look-ahead’ and the ‘look-behind’ features in regular expressions. These often cause confusion and are considered to be a tricky part of regex. So, let me show you a simple example of how it can be used.

Below are several lines of a person’s last name, first name, middle name, separated by his or her department name. You can see that this is a snippet from a csv file. The problem is that a value in one field – the department name- also includes a comma, which is supposed to appear only between different fields not inside a field. So the comma becomes an unreliable separator. One way to solve this issue is to convert this csv file into a tab limited file, that is, using a tab instead of a comma as a field separater. That means that I need to replace all commas with tabs ‘except those commas that appear inside a department field.’

How do I achieve that? Luckily, the commas inside the department field value are all followed by a space character whereas the separator commas in between different fields are not so. Using the negative look-ahead regex, I can successfully specify the pattern of a comma that is not followed by (?!) a space \s.


Below, you can see that this regex matches all commas except those that are followed by a space.


For another example, the positive look-ahead regex, Ham(?=burg), will match ‘Ham‘ in Hamburg when it is applied to the text:  Hamilton, Hamburg, Hamlet, Hammock.

Below are the complete look-ahead and look-behind notations both positive and negative.

  • (?=pattern)is a positive look-ahead assertion
  • (?!pattern)is a negative look-ahead assertion
  • (?<=pattern)is a positive look-behind assertion
  • (?<!pattern)is a negative look-behind assertion

Can you think of any example where you can successfully apply a look-behind regular expression? (No? Then check out this page for more examples: http://www.rexegg.com/regex-lookarounds.html)

Now that we have covered even the look-ahead and the look-behind, you should be ready to tackle the very first crazy-looking regex that I introduced in the beginning of this post.

(?=^[0-5\- ]+$)(?!.*0123)\d{3}-\d{3,4}-\d{4}

Tell me what this will match! Post in the comment below and be proud of yourself.

More tools and resources for practicing regular expressions

There are many tools and resources out there that can help you practice regular expressions. Text editors such as EditPad Pro (Windows), Sublime, TextWrangler (Mac OS), Vi, EMacs all provide regex support. Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_text_editors#Basic_features) offers a useful comparison chart of many text editors you can refer to. RegexPal.com is a convenient online Javascript Regex tester. FireFox also has Regular Expressions add-on (https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/rext/).

For more tools and resources, check out “Regular Expressions: 30 Useful Tools and Resources” http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/regular-expression-tools-resources/.

Library problems you can solve with regex

The best way to learn regex is to start using it right away every time you run into a problem that can be solved faster with regex. What library problem can you solve with regular expressions? What problem did you solve with regular expressions? I use regex often to clean up or manipulate large data. Suppose you have 500 links and you need to add either EZproxy suffix or prefix to each. With regex, you can get this done in a matter of a minute.

To give you an idea, I will wrap up this post with some regex use cases several librarians generously shared with me. (Big thanks to the librarians who shared their regex use cases through Twitter! )

  • Some ebook vendors don’t alert you to new (or removed!) books in their collections but do have on their website a big A-Z list of all of their titles. For each such vendor, each month, I run a script that downloads that page’s HTML, and uses a regex to identify the lines that have ebook links in them. It uses another regex to extract the useful data from those lines, like URL and Title. I compare the resulting spreadsheet against last month’s (using a tool like diff or vimdiff) to discover what has changed, and modify the catalog accordingly. (@zemkat)
  • Sometimes when I am cross-walking data into a MARC record, I find fields that includes irregular spacing that may have been used for alignment in the old setting but just looks weird in the new one. I use a regex to convert instances of more than two spaces into just two spaces. (@zemkat)
  • Recently while loading e-resource records for government documents, we noted that many of them were items that we had duplicated in fiche: the ones with a call number of the pattern “H, S, or J, followed directly by four digits”. We are identifying those duplicates using a regex for that pattern, and making holdings for those at the same time. (@zemkat)
  • I used regex as part of crosswalking metadata schemas in XML. I changed scientific OME-XML into MODS + METS to include research images into the library catalog.  (@KristinBriney)
  • Parsing MARC just has to be one. Simple things like getting the GMD out of a 245 field require an expression like this: |h\[(.*)\]  MARCedit supports regex search and replace, which catalogers can use. (@phette23)
  • I used regex to adjust the printed label in Millennium depending on several factors, including the material type in the MARC record. (@brianslone )
  • I strip out non-Unicode characters from the transformed finding aids daily with  regex and  replace them with Unicode equivalents. (@bryjbrown)


Playing with JavaScript and JQuery – the Ebook link HTML string generator and the EZproxy bookmarklet generator

In this post, I will describe two cases in which I solved a practical problem with a little bit of JavaScript and JQuery. Check them out first here before reading the rest of the post which will explain how the code works.

  1. Library ebook link HTML string generator
  2. EZproxy bookmarklet generator – Longer version (with EZproxy Suffix)
  3. EZproxy bookmarklet generator – Shorter version (with EZproxy Prefix)

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/albaum/448573998/

1. Library ebook link HTML string generator

If you are managing a library website, you will be using a lot of hyperlinks for library resources. Sometimes you can distribute some of the repetitive tasks to student workers, but they are usually not familiar with HTML. I had a situation in which I needed to add a number of links for library e-books for my library’s Course E-book LibGuide page, when I was swamped with many other projects at the same time. So I wondered if I could somehow still use the library’s student assistant’s help by creating an providing a simple tool, so that the student only needs to input the link title and url and get me the result as HTML. This way, I can still delegate some work when I am swamped with other projects that require my attention. (N.B. Needless to say, this doesn’t mean that what I did was the best way to use the student assistance for this type of work. I didn’t want them to edit the page directly because this page had tabs tabs and the student using the WYSWYG editor might inadvertently remove part of the tabbed box code.)

The following code exactly does that.

This HTML form takes an e-book title and the link to the book as input and spits out a hyperlink as a list item as a result. For example, if you fill in the title field with ‘Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice’ and the link field with its url: http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://www.mdconsult.com/public/book/view?title=Daroff:+Bradley’s+Neurology+in+Clinical+Practice, then the result would be shown in the text area : <li><a href=”http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://www.mdconsult.com/public/book/view?title=Daroff:+Bradley’s+Neurology+in+Clinical+Practice”> Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice</a></li>  I also wanted the library student assistant to be able to do this for many e-books at once and just send me the whole set of HTML snippets that cover all ebooks. So after running the form once, if one fills out the title and the link field with another e-book information, the result would be added to the end of the previous HTML string and be displayed in the text area. The result would be like this: <li><a href=”http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://www.mdconsult.com/public/book/view?title=Daroff:+Bradley’s+Neurology+in+Clinical+Practice”> Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice</a></li><li><a href=”http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=64″>Cardiovascular Physiology</a></li>. Since the code is in the text area, the student can also edit if there was any error when s/he was filling out the form after clicking the button ‘Send to Text Area’.

Now, let’s take a look at what is going on behind the scene. This is the entire html file. The Javascript/JQuery code that is generating the html string in the text area is from line 22-32.

<script type="text/javascript" src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.8.0/jquery.min.js"></script>
		This page creates the html-friendly string for a link with a title and a url. 
		<li>Fill out the form below and click the button. </li>
		<li>If the link is messy, clean up first by using the <a href="http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/dencoder/">URL decoder</a>.</li>
		<li>Copy and paste the result inside the text area after you are done.</li>
		Title: <input type="text" id="title1" size="100"/><br/>
		Link: <input type="text" id="link1" size="100"/><br/>
		<button id="b1">Send to Text Area</button>
	<p id="result1"></p>
	<textarea rows="20" cols="80"></textarea>

	<script type="text/javascript">
	  //  alert('<a href="'+$("#link").val()+'">' + $("#title").val()+"</a>");
	    $('#result1').text('<li><a href="'+$("#link1").val()+'">' + $("#title1").val()+"</a></li>");
	    var res1='<li><a href="'+$("#link1").val()+'">' + $("#title1").val()+"</a></li>";
	 //   $('textarea').text(res1);
	}); // doc ready


Since I am using JQuery I am starting with the obligatory $(document).ready in line 2. In line 3,  I am giving a callback function that will be executed when the #b1 – the button with the id of b1 in line 17 above- is clicked.  Line 4 is commented out. I used this initially to test if I am getting the right string out of the input from the title and the link field using the JS alert. Line 5 is filling the p tag with the id of result 1 in line 19 above with the thus-created string. The string is also saved in variable res1 in line 7. Then it is attached to the content of the textarea field in line 8. Line 9 is commented out. If you use line 9 instead of line 8, any existing content in the textarea will be removed and only the new string created from the title and the link field will show up in the text area.

<script type="text/javascript">
	  //  alert('<a href="'+$("#link").val()+'">' + $("#title").val()+"</a>");
	    $('#result1').text('<li><a href="'+$("#link1").val()+'">' + $("#title1").val()+"</a></li>");
	    var res1='<li><a href="'+$("#link1").val()+'">' + $("#title1").val()+"</a></li>";
	 //   $('textarea').text(res1);
	}); // doc ready

You do not have to know a lot about scripting to solve a simple task like this!

2. EZproxy bookmarklet generator – Longer version

My second example is a bookmarklet that reloads the current page through a specific EZproxy system.

If you think that this bookmarklet reinvents the wheel since the LibX toolbar already does this, you are correct. And also if you are a librarian working with e-resources, you already know to add the EZproxy suffix at the end of the domain name of the url when a patron asks if a certain article on a web page is available through the library or not. But I found that no matter how many times I explain this trick of adding the EZproxy suffix to patrons, the trick doesn’t seem to stick in their busy minds. Also, many doctors and medical students, who are the primary patrons of my library, work at the computers in hospitals and they do not have the necessary privilege to install a toolbar on those computers. But they can create a bookmark.

Similarly, many students asked me why there is no LibX toolbar for their mobile devices unlike in their school laptops. (In the medical school where I work, all students are required to purchase a school-designated laptop; this laptop is pre-configured with all the necessary programs including the library LibX toolbar.) Well, mobile devices are not exactly computers and so the browser toolbar doesn’t work. But students want an alternative and they can create a bookmark on their tablets and smartphones. So the proxy bookmarklet is still a worthwhile tool for the mobile device users.

This is where the bookmarklet is: http://htmlpreview.github.com/?https://github.com/bohyunkim/examples/blob/master/bkmklt.html. To test, drag the link on the top that says Full-Text from FIU Library to your bookmark toolbar. Then go to http://jama.jamanetwork.com/Issue.aspx?journalid=67&issueID=4452&direction=P. Click the new bookmarklet you got on your toolbar. The page will reload and you will be asked to log in through the Florida International University EZproxy system. When you are authenticated, you will be seeing the page proxied: http://jama.jamanetwork.com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/Issue.aspx?journalid=67&issueID=4452&direction=P.

You will be surprised to see how simple the bookmarklet is (and there is even a shorter version than this which I will show in the next section). It is a JavaScript function wrapped inside a hyperlink. Lines 2-5 each takes the domain name, the path name, and any search string after the url path from the current window location object. So in the case of http://jama.jamanetwork.com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/Issue.aspx?journalid=67&issueID=4452&direction=P, location.host is http://jama.jamanetwork.com and location.pathname is Issue.aspx . The rest of the url ?journalid=67&issueID=4452&direction=P – is location.search. In line 4, I am putting my institution’s ezproxy suffix between these two, and in line 5, I am asking the browser load this new link.

<a href="javascript:(function(){
	var host=location.host;
	var path=location.pathname;
	var srch=location.search;
	var newlink='http://'+host+'.ezproxy.fiu.edu'+path+srch;
})();">Full-Text from FIU Library</a>

Now let’s take a look at the whole form. I created this form for those who want to create a ready-made bookmarklet recipe. All they need is their institution’s EZproxy suffix and whatever name they want to give to the bookmarklet. Once one fills out those two fields and click ‘Customize’ button, one will get the full HTML page code with the bookmarklet as a link in it.

<script type="text/javascript" src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.8.0/jquery.min.js"></script>
<h1>EZproxy Bookmarklet</h1>	
	<a href="javascript:(function(){
		var host=location.host;
		var path=location.pathname;
                var srch=location.search;
                var newlink='http://'+host+'.ezproxy.fiu.edu'+path+srch;
	})();">Full-Text from FIU Library</a> 
	(Drag the link to the bookmark toolbar!)
<p>This is a bookmarket that will reroute a current page through FIU EZproxy.
If you have the LibX toolbark installed, you do not need this bookmarklet. Simply select 'Reload Page via XYZ EZproxy' on the menu that appears when you right click.
Created by Bohyun Kim on March, 2013. 	
<h2>How to Test</h2>
	<li>Drag the link above to the bookmark toolbar of your web browser.</li>
	<li>Click the bookmark when you are on a webpage that has an academic article.</li>
	<li>It will ask you to log in through the FIU EZproxy.</li>
	<li>Once you are authenticated and the library has a subscription to the journal, you will will able to get the full-text article on the page.</li>
	<li>Look at the url and see if it contains .ezproxy.fiu.edu. If it does, the bookmarklet is working.</li>

<h2>Make One for Your Library</h2>
		Bookmark title: <input type="text" id="title1" size="40" placeholder="e.g. Full-Text ABC Library"/>
		<em>e.g. Full-text ABC Library</em>
		Library EZproxy Suffix: <input type="text" id="link1" size="31" placeholder="e.g. ezproxy.abc.edu"/>
		<em>e.g. ezproxy.abc.edu
		<button id="b1">Customize</button></em>
	<p><strong>Copy the following into a text editor and save it as an html file.</strong></p>
		<li>Open the file in a web browser and drag your link to the bookmark toolbar.</li>
	<p id="result1" style="color:#F7704F;">**Customized code will appear here.**</p>
	<p><strong>If you want to make any changes to the code:</strong></p>
	<textarea rows="10" cols="60"></textarea>

	<script type="text/javascript">
		var pre="&lt;html&gt; &lt;head&gt; &lt;script type=&quot;text/javascript&quot; src=&quot;http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.8.0/jquery.min.js&quot;&gt;&lt;/script&gt; &lt;/head&gt; &lt;body&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;javascript:(function(){ var hst=location.host; var path=location.pathname; var srch=location.search; var newlink='http://'+hst";
		var link1=$('#link1').val();
		var post="'+path+srch; window.open(newlink); })();">";
	  	var title=$("#title1").val();
	  	var end="&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/body&gt; &lt;/html&gt;";
	  	var final=$('<div />').html(pre+"+'."+link1+post+title+end).text()
	}); // doc ready


That ‘customize’ part is done here with several lines of JQuery. You will notice that the process is quite similar to what I did in my first example. In lines 4-8, I am just stitching together a bunch of text strings to spit out the whole code in the text area eventually when the ‘Customize’ button is clicked. All special characters used in HTML tags such as ‘<’ and ‘>’ have been changed to html enities. In line 9, I am taking the entire string saved in the variable end –I hope you name your variables a little more carefully than I do!–  and adding it to an empty div so that the string would be set as the inner HTML property of that div. And then I retrieve it using the .text() method. The result is the HTML code with the html entities decoded.

<script type="text/javascript">
		var pre="&lt;html&gt; &lt;head&gt; &lt;script type=&quot;text/javascript&quot; src=&quot;http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.8.0/jquery.min.js&quot;&gt;&lt;/script&gt; &lt;/head&gt; &lt;body&gt; &lt;a href=&quot;javascript:(function(){ var hst=location.host; alert(hst); var path=location.pathname; var srch=location.search; var newlink='http://'+hst";
		var link1=$('#link1').val();
		var post="'+path+srch; window.open(newlink); })();">";
	  	var title=$("#title1").val();
	  	var end="&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/body&gt; &lt;/html&gt;";
	  	var final=$('<div />').html(pre+"+'."+link1+post+title+end).text()
	}); // doc ready

Not too bad, right? I hope these examples show how just a few or several lines of code can be used to solve your practical problems at work. Coding is there for you to automate time-consuming and/or repetitive tasks.

3. EZproxy bookmarklet generator – Shorter version

There is a simpler way to create a EZproxy bookmarklet than the one sketched above. If you simply add EZproxy prefix in front of the entire url of the page where a user is is, you achieve the same result. In this case, you do not have to break the url with host, pathname, search string, etc.

<a href="javascript:void(location.href=%22http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=%22+location.href)">Full-Text from FIU Library</a>

Here are the code for this much simpler EZproxy bookmarklet and the bookmarklet generator. If you know the prefix of you library’s EZproxy prefix, you can make one for your library.

So there are many ways to get the same thing done. Some are more elegant and some are less so. Usually a shorter one is a more elegant solution. The lesson is that you usually get to the most elegant solution after coming up with many less elegant solutions first.

Do you have a problem that can be solved by creating several lines of code? Have you ever solved a practical problem using a bit of code? Share your experience in the comments!


Good Design: Pleasing to the Eyes “and” Functional

Many librarians work with technology even if their job titles are not directly related to technology. Design is somewhat similar to technology in that aspect. The primary function of a librarian is to serve the needs of library patrons, and we often do this by creating instructional or promotional materials such as a handout and a poster. Sometimes this design work goes to librarians in public services such as circulation or reference. Other times it is assigned to librarians who work with technology because it involves some design software.

The problem is that knowing how to use a piece of design software does not entail the ability to create a great work of design. One may be a whiz at Photoshop but can still produce an ugly piece of design. Most of us, librarians, are quite unfamiliar with the concept of design. ACRL TechConnect covered the topic design previously in Design 101 – Part 1 and Design 101 – Part 2. So be sure to check them out. In this post, I will share my experience of creating a poster for my library in the context of libraries and design.

1. Background

My workplace recently launched the new Kindle e-book leader lending program sponsored by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine/Southeast Atlantic Region Express Mobile Technology Project. This project is to be completed in a few months, and we have successfully rolled out 10 Kindles with 30 medical e-book titles for circulation early this year. One of the tasks left for me to do as the project manager is to create a poster to further promote this e-book reader program. No matter how great the Kindle e-book lending program is, if patrons don’t know about it, it won’t get much use. A good poster can attract a lot of attention from library patrons. I can just put a small sign with “Kindles available!” written on it somewhere in the library. But the impact would be quite different.

2. Trying to design a poster

When I planned the grant budget, I included an budget item for large posters. But the item only covers the printing costs, not the design costs. So I started designing a poster myself.  Here are a few of my first attempts. Even to my untrained eyes, these look unprofessional and amateurish, however. The first one looked more like a handout than a poster. So I decided to make the background black.  That makes the QR code and the library logo invisible however. To fix this, I added a white background behind them. Slightly better maybe? Not really.


My first try doesn’t look so good!


My second attempt is only marginally better!












One thing I know about design is that an image can save or kill your work. A stunning image alone can make a piece of design awesome. So I did some Google search and found out this nice image of Kindle. Now it looks like that I need to flip the poster to make it wide.


The power of a nice image! Too bad it is copyrighted…

But there is a catch. The image I found is copyrighted. This was just an example to show how much power a nice image or photograph can have to the overall quality of a work of design. I also looked for Kindle images/photographs in Flick Creative Commons but failed to locate one that allows making derivatives. This is a very common problem for libraries, which tend to have little access to quality images/photographs. If you are lucky you may find a good image from Pixabay which offer very nice photographs and images that are in public domain.


Changed the poster setup to to make it wide.

3. What went wrong

You probably already have some ideas about what went wrong with my failed attempts so far. The font doesn’t look right. The poster looks more like a handout. The image looks amateurish in the first two examples. But the whole thing is functional for sure, some may say. It does the job of conveying the message that the library now has Kindle E-book readers to offer. Others may object. No, not really, the wording is vague, far from clear. You can go on forever. A lot of times, these issues are solved by adding more words, more instructions, and more links, which can be also problematic.

But one thing is clear. These are not pretty. And what that means is that if I print this and hang up on the wall around the library, our new Kindle e-book lending program would fail to convey certain sentiments that I had in mind to our library patrons. I want the poster to present this program as a new and exciting new service. I would like the patron to see the poster and get interested, curious, and feel that the library is trying something innovative. Conveying those sentiments and creating a certain impression about the library ‘is’ the function of the poster as much as informing library patrons about the existence of the new Kindle e-book reader lending program. Now the posters above won’t do a good job at performing that function. So in those aspects, they are not really functional. Sometimes beauty is a necessity. For promotional materials, which libraries make a lot but tend to neglect the design aspect of them, ‘pleasing to the eyes’ is part of their essential function.

4. Fixing it

What I should have done is to search for examples first that advertise a similar program at other libraries. I was very lucky in this case. In the search results, I ran into this quite nice circulation desk signage created by Saint Mary’s College of Maryland Library. This was made as a circulation desk sign, but it gave me an inspiration that I can use for my poster.

An example can give you much needed inspiration!

Once you have some examples and inspiration, creating your own becomes much easier. Here, I pretty much followed the same color scheme and the layout from the one above. I changed the font and the wording and replaced the kindle image with a different one, which is close to what my library circulates. The image is from Amazon itself, and Amazon will not object people using their own product image to promote the product itself. So the copyright front is clear. You can see my final poster below. If I did not run into this example, however, I would have probably searched for Kindle advertisements, posters, and similar items for other e-book readers for inspiration.

One thing to remember is the purpose of the design. In  my case, the poster is planned to be printed on a large glossy paper  (36′ x 24′). So I had to make sure that the image will appear clear and crisp and not blurry when printed on the large-size paper. If your design is going to be used only online or printed on a small-size item, this is less of an issue.

Final result!

5. Good design isn’t just about being pretty

Hopefully, this example shows why good design is not just a matter of being pretty. Many of us have an attitude that being pretty is the last thing to be considered. This is not always false. When it is difficult enough to make things work as intended, making them pretty can seem like a luxury. But for promoting library services and programs at least, just conveying information is not sufficient. Winning the heart of library patrons is not just about letting people know what the library does but also about how the library does things. For this reason, the way in which the library lets people know about its services and programs also matters. Making things beautiful is one way to improve on this “how” aspect as far as promotional materials are concerned. Making individual interactions personally pleasant and the transactions on the library website user-friendly would be another way to achieve the same goal. Design is a broad concept that can be applied not only to visual work but also to a thought process, a tool, a service, etc., and it can be combined with other concept such as usability.


While I was doing this, I also discovered a great resource, Librarian Design Share. This is a great place to look for an inspiration or to submit your own work, so that it can inspire other librarians. Here are a few more resources that may be useful to those who work at a library and want to learn a bit more about visual design. Please share your experience and useful resources for the library design work in the comments!