Themes from the Knight Foundation’s News Challenge Grant Competition

This year’s Knight Foundation’s News Challenge project grant competition focused on the premise that libraries are “key for improving Americans’ ability to know about and to be involved with what takes place around them.”  While the Knight Foundation’s mission traditionally focuses on journalism and media, the News Challenge competition has funded several projects related to libraries in the past, such as projects enabling Chicago Public Library and New York Public Library to lend Wi-Fi hot-spots to patrons, Jason Griffey’s LibraryBox Project, and a DPLA project to clarify intellectual property rights for libraries sharing digital materials.  Winners receive a portion of around $5 million in funding, and typical awards range between $200,000 and $400,000, with some additional funding available for smaller (~$35,000) start-up projects.

The News Challenge this year called for ideas that “leverage libraries as a platform to build more knowledgeable communities”.  There were over 600 proposals in this years’ News Challenge (all of which you can find here), and 42 proposals made it into the semi-finals, with winners to be announced January 30th, 2015.  While not all of the proposed ideas specifically involve digital technologies, most propose the creation of some kind of application or space where library users can access and learn about new technologies and digital skills.

Notably, while the competition was open to anyone (not just libraries or librarians), around 30 of the 42 finalist projects have at least one librarian or library organization sponsor on the team.1  Nearly all the projects involve the intersection of multiple disciplines, including history, journalism, engineering, education/instructional design, music, and computer science.  Three general themes seem to have emerged from this year’s News Challenge finalists:  1) maker spaces tailored to specific community needs; 2) libraries innovating new ways to publish, curate, and lend DRM-free ebooks and other content; and 3) facilitating the preservation of born-digital user-generated histories.

MakerSpaces Made for Communities

Given how popular makerspaces have become in libraries2 over the past several years, it’s not surprising to see that many News Challenge proposals  seek funding for the space and/or equipment to create library makerspaces.  What is interesting about many of these makerspace proposals is that many of them highlight the need to develop makerspaces that are specifically relevant to to the interests and needs of the local communities a library serves.

For example, one proposal out of Philadelphia – Libraries as Hip-Hop Techspace – proposes equipping a library space with tools for learning about and creating digital music via hip-hop.  Another proposal out of Vermont focuses on teaching digital literacies and skillsets via makerspace technologies in rural communities.  Of course, many proposals include 3D printers, but what stands out about proposals that have made it through to the finals (like this one that proposes 3D printed books for blind children, for example, or this one that proposes a tiny makerspace for a small community) are those that emphasize how the project would use 3D printing and associated technologies in an innovative way that is still meaningful to specific community learning needs and interests.

One theme that runs through these maker-related proposals, whether they come from cities or rural locations, is the relevance of these spaces to the business and economic needs of the communities in which they are proposed.  Several entries point out the potential for library maker-spaces to be entrepreneurial incubators designed to enable users to develop, prototype, and market their own software or other products.  Many of these proposals specifically mention how the current “digital divide” is, at its heart, an economic divide – such as this maker space proposal from San Jose, which argues that “In order for the next generation of Silicon Valley’s leaders to rise from its neighborhoods, access to industry knowledge and tools should begin early to inspire participation, experimentation, and collaboration – essential skills of the thriving economy in the area.”  Creativity and experimentation are increasingly essential skills in the labor force, and these proposals highlight how a library’s role in fostering creative expression ultimately provides an economic benefit.

Publishing and Promoting DRM-Free Content

Like maker spaces, libraries serving as publishers is not a new trend.3  What is interesting about Knight Foundation proposals that that center on this topic are the projects that position libraries as publishers of content that otherwise would struggle to get published in the current marketplace, while recognizing the desire for libraries to more easily lend digital content to their users.

A great example of this is a proposal by the developers of JukePop to leverage “libraries’ ebook catalogs so they become THE publishing platform for indie authors looking to be discovered by the most avid readers”  JukePop is a publishing platform for indie authors that enables distribution of ebooks – often in serial form – to readers who can provide feedback to authors.  Downloads from library websites are DRM-free.4 Other proposals – like this proposal for improving the licensing models of indie games – also have a core value of figuring out new ways to streamline user access to content while providing benefits and compensation to creators.

A somewhat different – and super interesting – manifestation of this theme is the Gitenberg project, which proposes utilizing Github as a platform for version control to enable libraries to contribute to improving digital manuscripts and metadata for Project Gutenberg.  The project already has a repository that you can start forking from and making pull requests to improve Project Gutenberg data.

Telling Community Stories through Born-Digital Media Preservation

Libraries and archives have always held the role of preserving the cultural heritage of the communities they serve, but face challenges in easily  gathering, preserving, and curating born-digital media.  While individual users capture huge amounts of media on mobile devices, as the Open Archive proposal puts it, “the most common destination for this media is on social media platforms that can chill free speech and are not committed to privacy, authentication, or long-term preservation.”  StoryCorps, for example, proposes the creation of better tools and distributed education for libraries and archives to record and preserve diverse community stories through interviews.  CurateScape “seeks to remake public life through a distributed and participatory network of digital storytelling,” emphasizing the need for technology that can be adopted by libraries to document local community histories.  The Internet Archive proposes more streamlined tools and frameworks to enable users to more easily submit content for preservation to archive.org.  The Open Archive project, also associated with the Internet Archive, emphasizes empowering users through their local libraries and archives to capture and submit their media to community collections.  Recognizing that there is still an enormous amount of pre-digital content waiting to be preserved New York Public Library seeks to “democratize the digitization process” through mobile and distributed digitization tools.

The element that seems to motivate many of these proposals is an emphasis on unique, community-centric collections that tell a story.  They focus on the importance of local institutions as connection points for users to share their content, and their experiences, with the world, while also documenting the context surrounding those experiences.  Libraries and archives are uniquely positioned as the logical place to document local histories in the interest of long-term preservation, but need better solutions.  It’s definitely exciting to see the energy behind these proposals and the innovative solutions that are on the horizon.

Start Thinking about Next Year!

Full disclosure:  I was part of a team that submitted a proposal to the News Challenge, and while we’ve been notified it won’t be funded, it was a fantastic learning experience.  I definitely made some great connections with other Challenge participants (many tweets have been exchanged!) – and it’s not surprising to me that even in a competition, library people find ways to work together and collaborate.  While winners for this years’ competition won’t be announced until January 30th, and the specific “challenge” prompt for the next competition won’t be identified until late next year (and may not be specifically library-related), I would definitely encourage anyone with a good, relevant idea to think about applying to next years’ News Challenge.

There’s also some interesting stuff to be found in the “Inspiration” section of the News Challenge, where people could submit articles, discussions, and ideas relevant to this year’s Challenge.  One of the articles linked to in that section is the transcript of a 2013 speech by author Neil Gaiman, which features a lot of lovely bits of motivation for every library enthusiast – like this one, which I think captures a central thread running through almost every News Challenge proposal:  “A library is a place that is a repository of information and gives every citizen equal access to it… It’s a community space. It’s a place of safety, a haven from the world. It’s a place with librarians in it. What the libraries of the future will be like is something we should be imagining now.”

Notes

  1. The projects that do not have direct library/librarian involvement listed on the project team – including “Cowbird” (https://newschallenge.org/challenge/libraries/evaluation/building-libraries-of-human-experience-transforming-america-s-libraries-into-community-storytelling-centers-for-the-digital-age) and “Libraries as Hip-Hop TechSpace” (https://newschallenge.org/challenge/libraries/refinement/libraries-as-hip-hop-techspace) are definitely interesting to read.  I do think they provide a unique perspective on how the ethos and mission of libraries is perceived by those not necessarily embedded in the profession – and I’m encouraged that these proposals do show a fairly clear understanding of the directions libraries are moving in.
  2. http://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/?p=2340
  3. See http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2014/03/publishing/the-public-library-as-publisher and http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/3336451.0017.207
  4. Santa Clara County Library district is a development partner with JukePop – you can check out their selection of JukePop-sourced DRM-free titles available here:  http://www.sccl.org/Browse/eBooks-Downloads/Episodic-Fiction

This is How I Work (Bryan J. Brown)

Editor’s Note: This post is part of ACRL TechConnect’s series by our regular and guest authors about The Setup of our work.

 

After being tagged by Eric Phetteplace, I was pleased to discover that I had been invited to take part in the “This is How I Work” series. I love seeing how other people view work and office life, so I’m happy to see this trend make it to the library world.

Name: Bryan J. Brown (@bryjbrown)

Location: Tallahassee, Florida, United States

Current Gig: Web Developer, Technology and Digital Scholarship, Florida State University Libraries

Current Mobile Device: Samsung Galaxy Note 3 w/ OtterBox Defender cover (just like Becky Yoose!). It’s too big to fit into my pants pocket comfortably, but I love it so much. I don’t really like tablets, so having a gigantic phone is a nice middle ground.

Current Computer: 15 inch MacBook Pro w/ 8GB of RAM. I’m a Linux person at heart, but when work offers you a free MBP you don’t turn it down. I also use a thunderbolt monitor in my office for dual-screen action.

Current Tablet: 3rd gen. iPad, but I don’t use it much these days. I bought it for reading books, but I strongly prefer to read them on my phone or laptop instead. The iPad just feels huge and awkward to hold.

One word that best describes how you work: Structured. I do my best when I stay within the confines of a strict system and/or routine that I’ve created for myself, it helps me keep the chaos of the universe at bay.

What apps/software/tools can’t you live without?

Unixy stuff:

  • Bash: I’ve tried a few other shells (tcsh, zsh, fish), but none have inspired me to switch.
  • Vim: I use this for everything, even journal entries and grocery lists. I have *some* customizations, but it’s pretty much stock (except I love my snippets plugin).
  • tmux: Like GNU Screen, but better.
  • Vagrant: The idea of throwaway virtual machines has changed the way I approach development. I do all my work inside Vagrant machines now. When I eventually fudge things, I can just run ‘vagrant destroy’ and pretend it never happened!
  • Git: Another game changer. I shouldn’t have waited so long to learn about version control. Git has saved my bacon countless times.
  • Anaconda: I’m a Python fan, but I like Python 3 and the scientific packages. Most systems only have Python 2, and a lot of the scientific packages fail to build for obscure reasons. Anaconda takes care of all that nonsense and allows you to have the best, most current Python goodness on any platform. I find it very comforting to know that I can use my favorite language and packages everywhere no matter what.
  • Todo.txt-CLI: A command line interface to the Todo.txt system, which I am madly in love with. If you set it to save your list to Dropbox, you can manage it from other devices, too. My work life revolves around my to-do list which I mostly manage at my laptop with Todo.txt-CLI.

Other:

  • Dropbox: Keeping my stuff in order across machines is a godsend. All my most important files are kept in Dropbox so I can always get to them, and being able to put things in a public folder and share the URL is just awesome.
  • Google Drive: I prefer Dropbox better for plain storage, but the ability to write documents/spreadsheets/drawings/surveys at will, store them in the cloud, share them with coworkers and have them write along with you is too cool. I can’t imagine working in a pre-Drive world.
  • Trello: I only recently discovered Trello, but now I use it for everything at work. It’s the best thing for keeping a group of people on track with a large project, and moving cards around is strangely satisfying. Also you can put rocket stickers on cards.
  • Quicksilver for Mac: I love keyboard shortcuts. A lot. Quicksilver is a Mac app for setting up keyboard shortcuts for everything. All my favorite apps have hotkeys now.
  • Todo.txt for Android: A nice mobile interface for the Todo.txt system. One of the few apps I’ve paid money for, but I don’t regret it.
  • Plain.txt for Android: This one is kind of hard to explain until you use it. It’s a mobile text editor for taking notes that get saved in Dropbox, which is useful in more ways than you can imagine. Plain.txt is my mobile interface to the treasure trove of notes I usually write in Vim on my laptop. I keep everything from meeting notes to recipes (as well as the previously mentioned grocery lists and journal entries) in it. Second only to Todo.txt in helping me stay sane.

What’s your workspace like?

My office is one of my favorite places. A door I can shut, a big whiteboard and lots of books and snacks. Who could ask for more? I’m trying out the whole “standing desk” thing, and slowly getting used to it (but it *does* take some getting used to). My desk is multi-level (it came from a media lab that no longer exists where it held all kinds of video editing equipment), so I have my laptop on a stand and my second monitor on the level above it so that I can comfortably look slightly down to see the laptop or slightly up to see the big display.

20141204_105656

What’s your best time-saving trick?

Break big, scary, complicated tasks into smaller ones that are easy to do. It makes it easier to get started and stay on track, which almost always results in getting the big scary thing done way faster than you thought you would.

What’s your favorite to-do list manager?

I am religious about my use of Todo.txt, whether from the command line or with my phone. It’s my mental anchor, and I am obsessive about keeping it clean and not letting things linger for too long. I prioritize things as A (get done today), B (get done this week), C (get done soon), and D (no deadline).

I’m getting into Scrum lately, so my current workflow is to make a list of everything I want to finish this week (my sprint) and mark them as B priority (my sprint backlog, either moving C tasks to B or adding new ones in manually). Then, each morning I pick out the things from the B list that I want to get done today and I move them to A. If some of the A things are complicated I break them into smaller chunks. I then race myself to see if I can get them all done before the end of the day. It turns boring day-to-day stuff into a game, and if I win I let myself have a big bowl of ice cream.

Besides your phone and computer, what gadget can’t you live without?

Probably a nice, comfy pair of over-the-ear headphones. I hate earbuds, they sound thin and let in all the noise around you. I need something that totally covers my ears to block the outside world and put me in a sonic vacuum.

What everyday thing are you better at than everyone else?

I guess I’m pretty good at the whole “Inbox Zero” thing. I check my email once in the morning and delete/reply/move everything accordingly until there’s nothing left, which usually takes around 15 minutes. Once you get into the habit it’s easy to stay on top.

What are you currently reading?

  • The Information by James Gleick. I’m reading if for Club Bibli/o, a library technology bookclub. We just started, so you can still join if you like!
  • Pro Drupal 7 Development by Todd Tomlinson and John K. VanDyk. FSU Libraries is a Drupal shop, so this is my bread and butter. Or at least it will be once I get over the insane learning curve.
  • Buddhism Plain and Simple by Steve Hagen. The name says it all, Steve Hagen is great at presenting the core parts of Buddhism that actually help you deal with things without all the one hand clapping nonsense.

What do you listen to while you work?

Classic ambient artists like Brian Eno and Harold Budd are great when I’m in a peaceful, relaxed place, and I’ll listen to classical/jazz if I’m feeling creative. Most of the time though it’s metal, which is great for decimating to-do lists. If I really need to focus on something, any kind of music can be distracting so I just play static from simplynoise.com. This blocks all the sound outside my office and puts me in the zone.

Are you more of an introvert or an extrovert?

Introvert for sure. I can be sociable when I need to, but my office is my sanctuary. I really value having a place where I can shut the door and recharge my social batteries.

What’s your sleep routine like?

I’ve been an early bird by necessity since grad school, the morning is the best time to get things done. I usually wake up around 4:30am so I can hit the gym when it opens at 5am (I love having the whole place to myself). I start getting tired around 8pm, so I’m usually fast asleep by 10pm.

Fill in the blank: I’d love to see _________ answer these same questions.

Richard Stallman. I bet he’d have some fun answers.

What’s the best advice you’ve ever received?

Do your best. As simple as it sounds, it’s a surprisingly powerful statement. Obviously you can’t do *better* than your best, and if you try your best and fail then there’s nothing to regret. If you just do the best job you can at any given moment you’ll have the best life you can. There’s lots of philosophical loopholes buried that perspective, but it’s worked for me so far.


This Is How I Work (Nadaleen Tempelman-Kluit)

Editor’s Note: This post is part of ACRL TechConnect’s series by our regular and guest authors about The Setup of our work.

 

Nadaleen Tempelman-Kluit @nadaleen

Location: New York, NY

Current Gig: Head, User Experience (UX), New York University Libraries

Current Mobile Device: iPhone 6

Current Computer:

Work: Macbook pro 13’ and Apple 27 inch Thunderbolt display

Old dell PC that I use solely to print and to access our networked resources

Home:

I carry my laptop to and from work with me and have an old MacBook Pro at home.

Current Tablet: First generation iPad, supplied by work

One word that best describes how you work: has anyone said frenetic yet?

What apps/software/tools can’t you live without?

Communication / Workflow

Slack is the UX Dept. communication tool in which all our communication takes place, including instant messaging, etc. We create topic channels in which we add links and tools and thoughts, and get notified when people add items. We rarely use email for internal communication.

Boomeranggmail-I write a lot of emails early in the morning so can schedule them to be sent at different times of the day without forgetting.

Pivotal Tracker-is a user story-based project planning tool based on agile software development methods. We start with user flows then integrate them into bite size user stories in Pivotal, and then point them for development

Google Drive

Gmail

Google Hangouts-We work closely with our Abu Dhabi and Shanghai campus libraries, so we do a lot of early morning and late night meetings using Google Hangouts (or GoToMeeting, below) to include everyone.

Wireframing, IA, Mockups

Sketch: A great lightweight design app

OmniGraffle: A more heavy duty tool for wire framing, IA work, mockups, etc. Compatible with a ton of stencil libraries, including he great Knoigi (LINK) and Google material design icons). Great for interactive interface demos, and for user flows and personas (link)

Adobe Creative Cloud

Post It notes, Graph paper, White Board, Dry-Erase markers, Sharpies, Flip boards

Tools for User Centered Testing / Methods 

GoToMeeting- to broadcast formal usability testing to observers in another room, so they can take notes and view the testing in real time and ask virtual follow up questions for the facilitator to ask participants.

Crazy Egg-a heat mapping hot spotting A/B testing tool which, when coupled with analytics, really helps us get a picture of where users are going on our site.

Silverback- Screen capturing usability testing software app.

PostitPlus – We do a lot of affinity grouping exercises and interface sketches using post it notes,  so this app is super cool and handy.

OptimalSort-Online card sorting software.

Personas-To think through our user flows when thinking through a process, service, or interface. We then use these personas to create more granular user stories in Pivotal Tracker (above).

What’s your workspace like?

I’m on the mezzanine of Bobst Library which is right across from Washington Square Park. I have a pretty big office with a window overlooking the walkway between Bobst and the Stern School of Business.

I have a huge old subway map on one wall with an original heavy wood frame, and everyone likes looking at old subway lines, etc. I also have a map sheet of the mountain I’m named after. Otherwise, it’s all white board and I’ve added our personas to the wall as well so I can think through user stories by quickly scanning and selecting a relevant persona.

I’m in an area where many of my colleagues mailboxes are, so people stop by a lot. I close my door when I need to concentrate, and on Fridays we try to work collaboratively in a basement conference room with a huge whiteboard.

I have a heavy wooden L shaped desk which I am trying to replace with a standing desk.

Every morning I go to Oren’s, a great coffee shop nearby, with the same colleague and friend, and we usually do “loops” around Washington Square Park to problem solve and give work advice. It’s a great way to start the day.

What’s your best time saving trick

Informal (but not happenstance) communication saves so much time in the long run and helps alleviate potential issues that can arise when people aren’t communicating. Though it takes a few minutes, I try to touch base with people regularly.

What’s your favorite to do list manager

My whiteboard, supplemented by stickies (mac), and my huge flip chart notepad with my wish list on it. Completed items get transferred to a “leaderboard.”

Besides your phone and computer, what gadget can’t you live without?

Headphones

What everyday thing are you better at than everyone else?

I don’t think I do things better than other people, but I think my everyday strengths include:  encouraging and mentoring, thinking up ideas and potential solutions, getting excited about other people’s ideas, trying to come to issues creatively, and dusting myself off.

What are you currently reading?

I listen to audiobooks and podcasts on my bike commute. Among my favorites:

In print, I’m currently reading:

What do you listen to while at work?

Classical is the only type of music I can play while working and still be able to (mostly) concentrate. So I listen to the masters, like Bach, Mozart and Tchaikovsky

When we work collaboratively on creative things that don’t require earnest concentration I defer to one of the team to pick the playlist. Otherwise, I’d always pick Josh Ritter.

Are you more of an introvert or an extrovert?

Mostly an introvert who fakes being an extrovert at work but as other authors have said (Eric, Nicholas) it’s very dependent on the situation and the company.

What’s your sleep routine like?

Early to bed, early to rise. I get up between 5-6 and go to bed between around 10.

Fill in the blank: I’d love to see _________ answer these same questions.

@Morville (Peter Morville)

@leahbuley (Leah Buley)

What’s the best advice you’ve ever received?

Show up


This is How I Work (Lauren Magnuson)

Editor’s Note: This post is part of ACRL TechConnect’s series by our regular and guest authors about The Setup of our work.

Lauren Magnuson, @lpmagnuson

Location: Los Angeles, CA

Current Gig:

Systems & Emerging Technologies Librarian, California State University Northridge (full-time)

Development Coordinator, Private Academic Library Network of Indiana (PALNI) Consortium (part-time, ~10/hrs week)

Current Mobile Device: iPhone 4.  I recently had a chance to upgrade from an old slightly broken iPhone 4, so I got….another iPhone4.  I pretty much only use my phone for email and texting (and rarely, phone calls), so even an old iPhone is kind of overkill for me.

Current Computer:

  • Work:  work-supplied HP Z200 Desktop, Windows 7, dual monitors
  • Home: (for my part-time gig): Macbook Air 11”

Current Tablet: iPad 2, work-issued, never used

One word that best describes how you work: relentlessly

What apps/software/tools can’t you live without?

  • Klok – This is time-tracking software that allows you to ‘clock-in’ when working on a project.  I use it primarily to track time spent working my part-time gig.  My part-time gig is hourly, so I need to track all the time I spend working that job.  Because I love the work I do for that job, I also need to make sure I work enough hours at my full-time job.  Klok allows me to track hours for both and generate Excel timesheets for billing.  I use the free version, but the pro version looks pretty cool as well.
  • Trello – I use this for the same reasons everyone else does – it’s wonderfully simple but does exactly what I need to do.  People often drop by my office to describe a problem to me, and unless I make a Trello card for it, the details of what needs to be done can get lost.  I also publish my CSUN Trello board publically and link it from my email signature.
  • Google Calendar - I stopped using Outlook for my primary job and throw everything into Google Calendar now.  I also dig Google Calendar’s new feature that integrates with Gmail so that hotel reservations and flights are automatically added to your Google Calendar.
  • MAMP/XAMPP – I used to only do development work on my Macbook Air with MAMP and Terminal, which meant I carted it around everywhere – resulting in a lot of wear and tear.  I’ve stopped doing that and invested some time in in setting up a development environment with XAMPP and code libraries on my Windows desktop.  Obviously I then push everything to remote git repositories so that I can pull code from either machine to work on it whether I’m at home or at work.
  • Git (especially Git Shell, which comes with Git for Windows) – I was initially intimidated about learning git – it definitely takes some trial and error to get used to the commands and how fetching/pulling/forking/merging all work together.  But I’m really glad I took the time to get comfortable with it.  I use both GitHub (for code that actually works and is shared publically) and BitBucket (for hacky stuff that doesn’t work yet and needs to be in a private repo).
  • Oxygen XML Editor – I don’t always work with XML/XSLT, but when I have to, Oxygen makes it (almost) enjoyable.
  • YouMail – This is a mobile app that, in the free version, sends you an email every time you have a voicemail or missed call on your phone.  At work, my phone is usually buried in the nether-regions of of my bag, and I usually keep it on silent, so I probably won’t be answering my mobile at work.  YouMail allows me to not worry where my phone is or if I’m missing any calls.  (There is a Pro version that transcribes your voicemail that I do not pay for, but seems like it might be cool if you need that kind of thing).
  • Infinite Storm – It rarely rains in southern California.  Sometimes you just need some weather to get through the day.  This mobile app makes rain and thunder sounds.

Physical:

  • Post It notes (though I’m trying to break this habit)
  • Basic Logitech headset for webinars / Google hangouts.  I definitely welcome suggestions for a headset that is more comfortable – the one I have weirdly crushes my ears.
  • A white board I use to track information literacy sessions that I teach

What’s your workspace like?

I’m on the fourth floor of the Oviatt Library at CSUN, which is a pretty awesome building.  Fun fact:  the library building was the shooting location for Star Fleet Academy scenes in JJ Abrams’ 2009 Star Trek movie, (but I guess it got destroyed by Romulans because they have a different Academy in Into Darkness):

Oviatt Library as Star Fleet Academy

My office has one of the very few windows available in the building, which I’m ambivalent about.  I truly prefer working in a cave-like environment with only the warm glow of my computer screen illuminating the space, but I also do enjoy the sunshine.

I have nothing on my walls and keep few personal effects in my office – I try to keep things as minimal as possible.  One thing I do have though is my TARDIS fridge, which I keep well-stocked with caffeinated beverages (yes, it does make the whoosh-whoosh sound, and I think it is actually bigger on the inside).

tardis

I am a fan of productivity desktop wallpapers – I’m using these right now, which help peripherally see how much time has elapsed when I’m really in the zone.

When I work from home, I mostly work from my living room couch.

What’s your best time saving trick  When I find I don’t know how to do (like when I recently had to wrangle my head around Fedora Commons content models, or learning Ruby on Rails for Hydra), I assign myself some ‘homework’ to read about it later rather than trying to learn the new thing during working hours.  This helps me avoid getting lost in a black hole of Stack Overflow for several hours a day.

What’s your favorite to do list manager Trello

Besides your phone and computer, what gadget can’t you live without?

Mr. Coffee programmable coffee maker

What everyday thing are you better at than everyone else? Troubleshooting

What are you currently reading?  I listen to audiobooks I download from LAPL (Thanks, LAPL!), and I particularly like British mystery series.  To be honest, I kind of tune them out when I listen to them at work, but they keep the part of my brain that likes to be distracted occupied.

In print, I’m currently reading:

What do you listen to while at work?  Mostly EDM now, which is pretty motivating and helps me zone in on whatever I’m working on.  My favorite Spotify station is mostly Deadmau5.

Are you more of an introvert or an extrovert? Introvert

What’s your sleep routine like?  I love sleep.  It is my hobby.  Usually I sleep from around 11 PM to 7 AM; but my ideal would be sleeping between like 9 PM and 9 AM.  Obviously that would be impractical.

Fill in the blank: I’d love to see _________ answer these same questions.  David Walker @ the CSU Chancellor’s Office

What’s the best advice you’ve ever received? 

Do, or Do Not, There is no Try.

Applies equally to using the Force and programming.


This Is How I (Attempt To) Work

Editor’s Note: ACRL TechConnect blog will run a series of posts by our regular and guest authors about The Setup of our work. The first post is by TechConnect alum Becky Yoose.

Ever wondered how several of your beloved TechConnect authors and alumni manage to Get Stuff Done? In conjunction with The Setup, this is the first post in a series of TechConnect authors, past and present, to show off what tools, tips, and tricks they use for work.

I have been tagged by @nnschiller in his “This is how I work” post. Normally, I just hide when these type of chain letter type events come along, but this time I’ll indulge everyone and dust off my blogging skills. I’m Becky Yoose, Discovery and Integrated Systems Librarian, and this is how I work.

Location: Grinnell, Iowa, United States

Current Gig: Assistant Professor, Discovery and Integrated Systems Librarian; Grinnell College

Current Mobile Device: Samsung Galaxy Note 3, outfitted with an OtterBox Defender cover. I still mourn the discontinuation of the Droid sliding keyboard models, but the oversized screen and stylus make up for the lack of tactile typing.

Current Computer:

Work: HP EliteBook 8460p (due to be replaced in 2015); boots Windows 7

Home: Betty, my first build; dual boots Windows 7 and Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

eeepc 901, currently b0rked due to misjudgement on my part about appropriate xubuntu distros.

Current Tablet: iPad 2, supplied by work.

One word that best describes how you work:

Panic!

Don’t panic. Nothing to see here. Move along.

What apps/software/tools can’t you live without?

Essential work computer software and tools, in no particular order:

  • Outlook – email and meetings make up the majority of my daily interactions with people at work and since campus is a Microsoft shop…
  • Notepad++ – my Swiss army knife for text-based duties: scripts, notes, and everything in between.
  • PuTTY - Great SSH/Telnet client for Windows.
  • Marcedit – I work with library metadata, so Marcedit is essential on any of my work machines.
  • MacroExpress and AutoIt – Two different Windows automation apps: MacroExpress handles more simple automation (opening programs, templating/constant data, simple workflows involving multiple programs) while AutoIt gives you more flexibility and control in the automation process, including programming local functions and more complex decision-making processes.
  • Rainmeter and Rainlander – These two provide customized desktop skins that give you direct or quicker access to specific system information, functions, or in Rainlander’s case, application data.
  • Pidgin – MPOW uses both LibraryH3lp and AIM for instant messaging services, and I use IRC to keep in touch with #libtechwomen and #code4lib channels. Being able to do all three in one app saves time and effort.
  • Jing – while the Snipping Tool in Windows 7 is great for taking screenshots for emails, Jing has proven to be useful for both basic screenshots and screencasts for troubleshooting systems issues with staff and library users. The ability to save screencasts on screencast.com is also valuable when working with vendors in troubleshooting problems.
  • CCleaner – Not only does it empty your recycling bin and temporary files/caches, the various features available in one spot (program lists, registry fixes, startup program lists, etc.) make CCleaner an efficient way to do housekeeping on my machines.
  • Janetter (modified code for custom display of Twitter lists) – Twitter is my main information source for the library and technology fields. One feature I use extensively is the List feature, and Janetter’s plugin-friendly set up allows me to highly customize not only the display but what is displayed in the list feeds.
  • Firefox, including these plugins (not an exhaustive list):

For server apps, the main app (beyond putty or vSphere) that I need is Nagios to monitor the library virtual Linux server farm. I also am partial to nano, vim, and apt.

As one of the very few tech people on staff, I need a reliable system to track and communicate technical issues with both library users and staff. Currently the Libraries is piggybacking on ITS’ ticketing system KBOX. Despite being fit into a somewhat inflexible existing structure, it has worked well for us, and since we don’t have to maintain the system, all the better!

Web services: The Old Reader, Gmail, Google Drive, Skype, Twitter. I still mourn the loss of Google Reader.

For physical items, my tea mug. And my hat.

What’s your workspace like?

Take a concrete box, place it in the dead center of the library, cut out a door in one side, place the door opening three feet from the elevator door, cool it to a consistent 63-65 degrees F., and you have my office. Spending 10+ hours a day during the week in this office means a bit of modding is in order:

  • Computer workstation set up: two HP LA2205wg 22 inch monitors (set to appropriate ergonomic distances on desk), laptop docking station, ergonomic keyboard/mouse stand, ergonomic chair. Key word is “ergonomic”. I can’t stress this enough with folks; I’ve seen friends develop RSIs on the job years ago and they still struggle with them today. Don’t go down that path if you can help it; it’s not pretty.
  • Light source: four lamps of varying size, all with GE Daylight 6500K 15 watt light bulbs. I can’t do the overhead lights due to headaches and migraines, so these lamps and bulbs help make an otherwise dark concrete box a little brighter.
  • Three cephalopods, a starfish, a duck, a moomin, and cats of various materials and sizes
  • Well stocked snack/emergency meal/tea corner to fuel said 10+ hour work days
  • Blankets, cardigans, shawls, and heating pads to deal with the cold

When I work at home during weekends, I end up in the kitchen with the laptop on the island, giving me the option to sit on the high chair or stand. Either way, I have a window to look at when I need a few seconds to think. (If my boss is reading this – I want my office window back.)

What’s your best time-saving trick?

Do it right the first time. If you can’t do it right the first time, then make the path to make it right as efficient  and painless as you possibly can. Alternatively, build a time machine to prevent those disastrous metadata and systems decisions made in the past that you’re dealing with now.

What’s your favorite to-do list manager?

Post it notes on a wall

The Big Picture from 2012

I have tried to do online to-do list managers, such as Trello; however, I have found that physical managers work best for me. In my office I have a to-do management system that comprises of three types of lists:

  • The Big Picture List (2012 list pictured above)- four big post it sheets on my wall, labeled by season, divided by months in each sheet. Smaller post it notes are used to indicate which projects are going on in which months. This is a great way to get a quick visual as to what needs to be completed, what can be delayed, etc.
  • The Medium Picture List – a mounted whiteboard on the wall in front of my desk. Here specific projects are listed with one to three action items that need to be completed within a certain time, usually within one to two months.
  • The Small Picture List – written on discarded Choice review cards, the perfect size to quickly jot down things that need to be done either today or in the next few days.

Besides your phone and computer, what gadget can’t you live without?

My wrist watch, set five minutes fast. I feel conscientious if I go out of the house without it.

What everyday thing are you better at than everyone else?

I’d like to think that I’m pretty good with adhering to Inbox Zero.

What are you currently reading?

The practice of system and network administration, 2nd edition. Part curiosity, part wanting to improve my sysadmin responsibilities, part wanting to be able to communicate better with my IT colleagues.

What do you listen to while you work?

It depends on what I am working on. I have various stations on Pandora One and a selection of iTunes playlists to choose from depending on the task on hand. The choices range from medieval chant (for long form writing) to thrash metal (XML troubleshooting).

Realistically, though, the sounds I hear most are email notifications, the operation of the elevator that is three feet from my door, and the occasional TMI conversation between students who think the hallway where my office and the elevator are located is deserted.

Are you more of an introvert or an extrovert?

An introvert blessed/cursed with her parents’ social skills.

What’s your sleep routine like?

I turn into a pumpkin at around 8:30 pm, sometimes earlier. I wake up around 4:30 am most days, though I do cheat and not get out of bed until around 5:15 am, checking email, news feeds, and looking at my calendar to prepare for the coming day.

Fill in the blank: I’d love to see _________ answer these same questions.

You. Also, my cats.

What’s the best advice you’ve ever received?

Not advice per se, but life experience. There are many things one learns when living on a farm, including responsibility, work ethic, and realistic optimism. You learn to integrate work and life since, on the farm, work is life. You work long hours, but you also have to rest whenever you can catch a moment.  If nothing else, living on a farm teaches you that no matter how long you put off doing something, it has to be done. The earlier, the better, especially when it comes with shoveling manure.


Analyzing EZProxy Logs

Analyzing EZProxy logs may not be the most glamorous task in the world, but it can be illuminating. Depending on your EZProxy configuration, log analysis can allow you to see the top databases your users are visiting, the busiest days of the week, the number of connections to your resources occurring on or off-campus, what kinds of users (e.g., staff or faculty) are accessing proxied resources, and more.

What’s an EZProxy Log?

EZProxy logs are not significantly different from regular server logs.  Server logs are generally just plain text files that record activity that happens on the server.  Logs that are frequently analyzed to provide insight into how the server is doing include error logs (which can be used to help diagnose problems the server is having) and access logs (which can be used to identify usage activity).

EZProxy logs are a kind of modified access log, which record activities (page loads, http requests, etc.) your users undertake while connected in an EZProxy session. This article will briefly outline five potential methods for analyzing EZProxy logs:  AWStats, Piwik, EZPaarse, a custom Python script for parsing starting-point URLS (SPU) logs, and a paid option called Splunk.

The ability of  any log analyzer will of course depend upon how your EZProxy log directives are configured.  You will need to know your LogFormat and/or LogSPU directives in order to configure most log file analyzing solutions.  In EZProxy, you can see how your logs are formatted in config.txt/ezproxy.cfg by looking for the LogFormat directive, 1  e.g.,

LogFormat %h %l %u %t “%r” %s %b “%{user-agent}i”

and / or, to log Starting Point URLs (SPUs):

LogSPU -strftime log/spu/spu%Y%m.log %h %l %u %t “%r” %s %b “%{ezproxy-groups}i”

Logging Starting Point URLs can be useful because those tend to be users either clicking into a database or the full-text of an article, but no activity after that initial contact is logged.  This type of logging does not log extraneous resource loading, such as loading scripts and images – which often clutter up your traditional LogFormat logs and lead to misleadingly high hits.  LogSPU directives can be defined in addition to traditional LogFormat to provide two different possible views of your users’ data.  SPULogs can be easier to analyze and give more interesting data, because they can give a clearer picture of which links and databases are most popular  among your EZProxy users.  If you haven’t already set it up, SPULogs can be a very useful way to observe general usage trends by database.

You can find some very brief anonymized EZProxy log sample files on Gist:

On a typical EZProxy installation, historical monthly logs can be found inside the ezproxy/log directory.  By default they will rotate out every 12 months, so you may only find the past year of data stored on your server.

AWStats

Get It:  http://www.awstats.org/#DOWNLOAD

Best Used With:  Full Logs or SPU Logs

Code / Framework:  Perl

    An example AWStats monthly history report. Can you tell when our summer break begins?

An example AWStats monthly history report. Can you tell when our summer break begins?

AWStats Pros:

  • Easy installation, including on localhost
  • You can define your unique LogFormat easily in AWStats’ .conf file.
  • Friendly, albeit a little bit dated looking, charts show overall usage trends.
  • Extensive (but sometimes tricky) customization options can be used to more accurately represent sometimes unusual EZProxy log data.
Hourly traffic distribution in AWStats.  While our traffic peaks during normal working hours, we have steady usage going on until about 1 AM, after which point it crashes pretty hard.  We could use this data to determine  how much virtual reference staffing we should have available during these hours.

Hourly traffic distribution in AWStats. While our traffic peaks during normal working hours, we have steady usage going on until about Midnight, after which point it crashes pretty hard. We could use this data to determine how much virtual reference staffing we should have available during these hours.

 

AWStats Cons:

  • If you make a change to .conf files after you’ve ingested logs, the changes do not take effect on already ingested data.  You’ll have to re-ingest your logs.
  • Charts and graphs are not particularly (at least easily) customizable, and are not very modern-looking.
  • Charts are static and not interactive; you cannot easily cross-section the data to make custom charts.

Piwik

Get It:  http://piwik.org/download/

Best Used With:  SPULogs, or embedded on web pages web traffic analytic tool

Code / Framework:  Python

piwik visitor dashboard

The Piwik visitor dashboard showing visits over time. Each point on the graph is interactive. The report shown actually is only displaying stats for a single day. The graphs are friendly and modern-looking, but can be slow to load.

Piwik Pros:

  • The charts and graphs generated by Piwik are much more attractive and interactive than those produced by AWStats, with report customizations very similar to what’s available in Google Analytics.
  • If you are comfortable with Python, you can do additional customizations to get more details out of your logs.
Piwik file ingestion in PowerShell

To ingest a single monthly log took several hours. On the plus side, with this running on one of Lauren’s monitors, anytime someone walked into her office they thought she was doing something *really* technical.

Piwik Cons:

  • By default, parsing of large log files seems to be pretty slow, but performance may depend on your environment, the size of your log files and how often you rotate your logs.
  • In order to fully take advantage of the library-specific information your logs might contain and your LogFormat setup, you might have to do some pretty significant modification of Piwik’s import_logs.py script.
When looking at popular pages in Piwik you’re somewhat at the mercy that the subdirectories of databases have meaningful labels; luckily EBSCO does, as shown here.  We have a lot of users looking at EBSCO Ebooks, apparently.

When looking at popular pages in Piwik you’re somewhat at the mercy that the subdirectories of database URLs have meaningful labels; luckily EBSCO does, as shown here. We have a lot of users looking at EBSCO Ebooks, apparently.

EZPaarse

Get Ithttp://analogist.couperin.org/ezpaarse/download

Best Used With:  Full Logs or SPULogs

Code / Framework:  Node.js

ezPaarse’s friendly drag and drop interface.  You can also copy/paste lines for your logs to try out the functionality by creating an account at http://ezpaarse.couperin.org.

ezPaarse’s friendly drag and drop interface. You can also copy/paste lines for your logs to try out the functionality by creating an account at http://ezpaarse.couperin.org.

EZPaarse Pros:

  • Has a lot of potential to be used to analyze existing log data to better understand e-resource usage.
  • Drag-and-drop interface, as well as copy/paste log analysis
  • No command-line needed
  • Its goal is to be able to associate meaningful metadata (domains, ISSNs) to provide better electronic resource usage statistics.
ezPaarse Excel output generated from a sample log file, showing type of resource (article, book, etc.) ISSN, publisher, domain, filesize, and more.

ezPaarse Excel output generated from a sample log file, showing type of resource (article, book, etc.) ISSN, publisher, domain, filesize, and more.

EZPaarse Cons:

  • In Lauren’s testing, we couldn’t get of the logs to ingest correctly (perhaps due to a somewhat non-standard EZProxy logformat) but the samples files provided worked well. UPDATE 11/26:  With some gracious assistance from EZPaarse’s developers, we got EZPaarse to work!  It took about 10 minutes to process 2.5 million log lines, which is pretty awesome. Lesson learned – if you get stuck, reach out to ezpaarse [at] couperin.org or tweet for help @ezpaarse.  Also be sure to try out some of the pre-defined parameters set up by other institutions under Parameters. Check out the comments below for some more detail from ezpaarse’s developers.
  • Output is in Excel Sheets rather than a dashboard-style format – but as pointed out in the comments below, you can optionally output the results in JSON.

Write Your Own with Python

Get Started With:  https://github.com/robincamille/ezproxy-analysis/blob/master/ezp-analysis.py

Best used with: SPU logs

Code / Framework:  Python

code

Screenshot of a Python script, available at Robin Davis’ Github

 

Custom Script Pros:

  • You will have total control over what data you care about. DIY analyzers are usually written up because you’re looking to answer a specific question, such as “How many connections come from within the Library?”
  • You will become very familiar with the data! As librarians in an age of user tracking, we need to have a very good grasp of the kinds of data that our various services collect from our patrons, like IP addresses.
  • If your script is fairly simple, it should run quickly. Robin’s script took 5 minutes to analyze almost 6 years of SPU logs.
  • Your output will probably be a CSV, a flexible and useful data format, but could be any format your heart desires. You could even integrate Python libraries like Plotly to generate beautiful charts in addition to tabular data.
  • If you use Python for other things in your day-to-day, analyzing structured data is a fun challenge. And you can impress your colleagues with your Pythonic abilities!

 

Action shot: running the script from the command line. (Source)

Action shot: running the script from the command line.

Custom Script Cons:

  • If you have not used Python to input/output files or analyze tables before, this could be challenging.
  • The easiest way to run the script is within an IDE or from the command line; if this is the case, it will likely only be used by you.
  • You will need to spend time ascertaining what’s what in the logs.
  • If you choose to output data in a CSV file, you’ll need more elbow grease to turn the data into a beautiful collection of charts and graphs.
output

Output of the sample script is a labeled CSV that divides connections by locations and user type (student or faculty). (Source)

Splunk (Paid Option)

Best Used with:  Full Logs and SPU Logs

Get It (as a free trial):  http://www.splunk.com/download

Code / Framework:  Various, including Python

A Splunk distribution showing traffic by days of the week.  You can choose to visualize this data in several formats, such as a bar chart or scatter plot.  Notice that this chart was generated by a syntactical query in the upper left corner:  host=lmagnuson| top limit=20 date_wday

A Splunk distribution showing traffic by days of the week. You can choose to visualize this data in several formats, such as a bar chart or scatter plot. Notice that this chart was generated by a syntactical query in the upper left corner: host=lmagnuson| top limit=20 date_wday

Splunk Pros:  

  • Easy to use interface, no scripting/command line required (although command line interfacing (CLI) is available)
  • Incredibly fast processing.  As soon as you import a file, splunk begins ingesting the file and indexing it for searching
  • It’s really strong in interactive searching.  Rather than relying on canned reports, you can dynamically and quickly search by keywords or structured queries to generate data and visualizations on the fly.
Here's a search for log entries containing a URL (digital.films.com), which Splunk uses to create a chart showing the hours of the day that this URL is being accessed.  This particular database is most popular around 4 PM.

Here’s a search for log entries containing a URL (digital.films.com), which Splunk uses to display a chart showing the hours of the day that this URL is being accessed. This particular database is most popular around 4 PM.

Splunk Cons:

    • It has a little bit of a learning curve, but it’s worth it for the kind of features and intelligence you can get from Splunk.
    • It’s the only paid option on this list.  You can try it out for 60 days with up to 500MB/day a day, and certain non-profits can apply to continue using Splunk under the 500MB/day limit.  Splunk can be used with any server access or error log, so a library might consider partnering with other departments on campus to purchase a license.2

What should you choose?

It depends on your needs, but AWStats is always a tried and true easy to install and maintain solution.  If you have the knowledge, a custom Python script is definitely better, but obviously takes time to test and develop.  If you have money and could partner with others on your campus (or just need a one-time report generated through a free trial), Splunk is very powerful, generates some slick-looking charts, and is definitely work looking into.  If there are other options not covered here, please let us know in the comments!

About our guest author: Robin Camille Davis is the Emerging Technologies & Distance Services Librarian at John Jay College of Criminal Justice (CUNY) in New York City. She received her MLIS from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in 2012 with a focus in data curation. She is currently pursuing an MA in Computational Linguistics from the CUNY Graduate Center.

Notes
  1. Details about LogFormat and what each %/lettter value means can be found at http://www.oclc.org/support/services/ezproxy/documentation/cfg/logformat.en.html; LogSPU details can be found http://oclc.org/support/services/ezproxy/documentation/cfg/logspu.en.html
  2. Another paid option that offers a free trial, and comes with extensions made for parsing EZProxy logs, is Sawmill: https://www.sawmill.net/downloads.html

Using the Stripe API to Collect Library Fines by Accepting Online Payment

Recently, my library has been considering accepting library fines via online. Currently, many library fines of a small amount that many people owe are hard to collect. As a sum, the amount is significant enough. But each individual fines often do not warrant even the cost for the postage and the staff work that goes into creating and sending out the fine notice letter. Libraries that are able to collect fines through the bursar’s office of their parent institutions may have a better chance at collecting those fines. However, others can only expect patrons to show up with or to mail a check to clear their fines. Offering an online payment option for library fines is one way to make the library service more user-friendly to those patrons who are too busy to visit the library in person or to mail a check but are willing to pay online with their credit cards.

If you are new to the world of online payment, there are several terms you need to become familiar with. The following information from the article in SixRevisions is very useful to understand those terms.1

  • ACH (Automated Clearing House) payments: Electronic credit and debit transfers. Most payment solutions use ACH to send money (minus fees) to their customers.
  • Merchant Account: A bank account that allows a customer to receive payments through credit or debit cards. Merchant providers are required to obey regulations established by card associations. Many processors act as both the merchant account as well as the payment gateway.
  • Payment Gateway: The middleman between the merchant and their sponsoring bank. It allows merchants to securely pass credit card information between the customer and the merchant and also between merchant and the payment processor.
  • Payment Processor: A company that a merchant uses to handle credit card transactions. Payment processors implement anti-fraud measures to ensure that both the front-facing customer and the merchant are protected.
  • PCI (the Payment Card Industry) Compliance: A merchant or payment gateway must set up their payment environment in a way that meets the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS).

Often, the same company functions as both payment gateway and payment processor, thereby processing the credit card payment securely. Such a product is called ‘Online payment system.’ Meyer’s article I have cited above also lists 10 popular online payment systems: Stripe, Authorize.Net, PayPal, Google Checkout, Amazon Payments, Dwolla, Braintree, Samurai by FeeFighters, WePay, and 2Checkout. Bear in mind that different payment gateways, merchant accounts, and bank accounts may or may not work together, your bank may or may not work as a merchant account, and your library may or may not have a merchant account. 2

Also note that there are fees in using online payment systems like these and that different systems have different pay structures. For example, Authorize.net has the $99 setup fee and then charges $20 per month plus a $0.10 per-transaction fee. Stripe charges 2.9% + $0.30 per transaction with no setup or monthly fees. Fees for mobile payment solutions with a physical card reader such as Square may go up much higher.

Among various online payment systems, I picked Stripe because it was recommended on the Code4Lib listserv. One of the advantages for using Stripe is that it acts as both the payment gateway and the merchant account. What this means is that your library does not have to have a merchant account to accept payment online. Another big advantage of using Stripe is that you do not have to worry about the PCI compliance part of your website because the Stripe API uses a clever way to send the sensitive credit card information over to the Stripe server while keeping your local server, on which your payment form sits, completely blind to such sensitive data. I will explain this in more detail later in this post.

Below I will share some of the code that I have used to set up Stripe as my library’s online payment option for testing. This may be of interest to you if you are thinking about offering online payment as an option for your patrons or if you are simply interested in how an online payment API works. Even if your library doesn’t need to collect library fines via online, an online payment option can be a handy tool for a small-scale fund-raising drive or donation.

The first step to take to make Stripe work is getting an API keys. You do not have to create an account to get API keys for testing. But if you are going to work on your code more than one day, it’s probably worth getting an account. Stripe API has excellent documentation. I have read ‘Getting Started’ section and then jumped over to the ‘Examples’ section, which can quickly get you off the ground. (https://stripe.com/docs/examples) I found an example by Daniel Schröter in GitHub from the list of examples in the Stripe’s Examples section and decided to test out. (https://github.com/myg0v/Simple-Bootstrap-Stripe-Payment-Form) Most of the time, getting an example code requires some probing and tweaking such as getting all the required library downloaded and sorting out the paths in the code and adding API keys. This one required relatively little work.

Now, let’s take a look at the form that this code creates.

borrowedcode

In order to create a form of my own for testing, I decided to change a few things in the code.

  1. Add Patron & Payment Details.
  2. Allow custom amount for payment.
  3. Change the currency from Euro to US dollars.
  4. Configure the validation for new fields.
  5. Hide the payment form once the charge goes through instead of showing the payment form below the payment success message.

html

4. can be done as follows. The client-side validation is performed by Bootstrapvalidator jQuery Plugin. So you need to get the syntax correct to get the code, which now has new fields, to work properly.
validator

This is the Javascript that allows you to send the data submitted to your payment form to the Stripe server. First, include the Stripe JS library (line 24). Include JQuery, Bootstrap, Bootstrap Form Helpers plugin, and Bootstrap Validator plugin (line 25-28). The next block of code includes an event handler for the form, which send the payment information to the Stripe via AJAX when the form is submitted. Stripe will validate the payment information and then return a token that identifies this particular transaction.

jspart

When the token is received, this code calls for the function, stripeResponseHandler(). This function, stripeResponseHandler() checks if the Stripe server did not return any error upon receiving the payment information and, if no error has been returned, attaches the token information to the form and submits the form.

jspart2

The server-side PHP script then checks if the Stripe token has been received and, if so, creates a charge to send it to Stripe as shown below. I am using PHP here, but Stripe API supports many other languages than PHP such as Ruby and Python. So you have many options. The real payment amount appears here as part of the charge array in line 326. If the charge succeeds, the payment success message is stored in a div to be displayed.

phppart

The reason why you do not have to worry about the PCI compliance with Stripe is that Stripe API asks to receive the payment information via AJAX and the input fields of sensitive information does not have the name attribute and value. (See below for the Card Holder Name and Card Number information as an example; Click to bring up the clear version of the image.)  By omitting the name attribute and value, the local server where the online form sits is deprived of any means to retrieve the information in those input fields submitted through the form. Since sensitive information does not touch the local server at all, PCI compliance for the local server becomes no concern. To clarify, not all fields in the payment form need to be deprived of the name attribute. Only the sensitive fields that you do not want your web server to have access to need to be protected this way. Here, for example, I am assigning the name attribute and value to fields such as name and e-mail in order to use them later to send a e-mail receipt.

(NB. Please click images to see the enlarged version.)

Screen Shot 2014-08-17 at 8.01.08 PM

Now, the modified form has ‘Fee Category’, custom ‘Payment Amount,’ and some other information relevant to the billing purpose of my library.

updated

When the payment succeeds, the page changes to display the following message.

success

Stripe provides a number of fake card numbers for testing. So you can test various cases of failures. The Stripe website also displays all payments and related tokens and charges that are associated with those payments. This greatly helps troubleshooting. One thing that I noticed while troubleshooting is that Stripe logs sometimes do lag behind. That is, when a payment would succeed, associated token and charge may not appear under the “Logs” section immediately. But you will see the payment shows up in the log. So you will know that associated token and charge will eventually appear in the log later.

recent_payment

Once you are ready to test real payment transactions, you need to flip the switch from TEST to LIVE located on the top left corner. You will also need to replace your API keys for ‘TESTING’ (both secret and public) with those for ‘LIVE’ transaction. One more thing that is needed before making your library getting paid with real money online is setting up SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) for your live online payment page. This is not required for testing but necessary for processing live payment transactions. It is not a very complicated work. So don’t be discouraged at this point. You just have to buy a security certificate and put it in your Web server. Speak to your system administrator for how to get the SSL set up for your payment page. More information about setting up SSL can be found in the Stripe documentation I just linked above.

My library has not yet gone live with this online payment option. Before we do, I may make some more modifications to the code to fit the staff workflow better, which is still being mapped out. I am also planning to place the online payment page behind the university’s Shibboleth authentication in order to cut down spam and save some tedious data entry by library patrons by getting their information such as name, university email, student/faculty/staff ID number directly from the campus directory exposed through Shibboleth and automatically inserting it into the payment form fields.

In this post, I have described my experience of testing out the Stripe API as an online payment solution. As I have mentioned above, however, there are many other online payment systems out there. Depending your library’s environment and financial setup, different solutions may work better than others. To me, not having to worry about the PCI compliance by using Stripe was a big plus. If your library accepts online payment, please share what solution you chose and what factors led you to the particular online payment system in the comments.

* This post has been based upon my recent presentation, “Accepting Online Payment for Your Library and ‘Stripe’ as an Example”, given at the Code4Lib DC Unconference. Slides are available at the link above.

Notes
  1. Meyer, Rosston. “10 Excellent Online Payment Systems.” Six Revisions, May 15, 2012. http://sixrevisions.com/tools/online-payment-systems/.
  2. Ullman, Larry. “Introduction to Stripe.” Larry Ullman, October 10, 2012. http://www.larryullman.com/2012/10/10/introduction-to-stripe/.

Bootstrap Responsibly

Bootstrap is the most popular front-end framework used for websites. An estimate by meanpath several months ago sat it firmly behind 1% of the web – for good reason: Bootstrap makes it relatively painless to puzzle together a pretty awesome plug-and-play, component-rich site. Its modularity is its key feature, developed so Twitter could rapidly spin-up internal microsites and dashboards.

Oh, and it’s responsive. This is kind of a thing. There’s not a library conference today that doesn’t showcase at least one talk about responsive web design. There’s a book, countless webinars, courses, whole blogs dedicated to it (ahem), and more. The pressure for libraries to have responsive, usable websites can seem to come more from the likes of us than from the patronbase itself, but don’t let that discredit it. The trend is clear and it is only a matter of time before our libraries have their mobile moment.

Library websites that aren’t responsive feel dated, and more importantly they are missing an opportunity to reach a bevy of mobile-only users that in 2012 already made up more than a quarter of all web traffic. Library redesigns are often quickly pulled together in a rush to meet the growing demand from stakeholders, pressure from the library community, and users. The sprint makes the allure of frameworks like Bootstrap that much more appealing, but Bootstrapped library websites often suffer the cruelest of responsive ironies:

They’re not mobile-friendly at all.

Assumptions that Frameworks Make

Let’s take a step back and consider whether using a framework is the right choice at all. A front-end framework like Bootstrap is a Lego set with all the pieces conveniently packed. It comes with a series of templates, a blown-out stylesheet, scripts tuned to the environment that let users essentially copy-and-paste fairly complex web-machinery into being. Carousels, tabs, responsive dropdown menus, all sorts of buttons, alerts for every occasion, gorgeous galleries, and very smart decisions made by a robust team of far-more capable developers than we.

Except for the specific layout and the content, every Bootstrapped site is essentially a complete organism years in the making. This is also the reason that designers sometimes scoff, joking that these sites look the same. Decked-out frameworks are ideal for rapid prototyping with a limited timescale and budget because the design decisions have by and large already been made. They assume you plan to use the framework as-is, and they don’t make customization easy.

In fact, Bootstrap’s guide points out that any customization is better suited to be cosmetic than a complete overhaul. The trade-off is that Bootstrap is otherwise complete. It is tried, true, usable, accessible out of the box, and only waiting for your content.

Not all Responsive Design is Created Equal

It is still common to hear the selling point for a swanky new site is that it is “responsive down to mobile.” The phrase probably rings a bell. It describes a website that collapses its grid as the width of the browser shrinks until its layout is appropriate for whatever screen users are carrying around. This is kind of the point – and cool, as any of us with a browser-resizing obsession could tell you.

Today, “responsive down to mobile” has a lot of baggage. Let me explain: it represents a telling and harrowing ideology that for these projects mobile is the afterthought when mobile optimization should be the most important part. Library design committees don’t actually say aloud or conceive of this stuff when researching options, but it should be implicit. When mobile is an afterthought, the committee presumes users are more likely to visit from a laptop or desktop than a phone (or refrigerator). This is not true.

See, a website, responsive or not, originally laid out for a 1366×768 desktop monitor in the designer’s office, wistfully depends on visitors with that same browsing context. If it looks good in-office and loads fast, then looking good and loading fast must be the default. “Responsive down to mobile” is divorced from the reality that a similarly wide screen is not the common denominator. As such, responsive down to mobile sites have a superficial layout optimized for the developers, not the user.

In a recent talk at An Event Apart–a conference–in Atlanta, Georgia, Mat Marquis stated that 72% of responsive websites send the same assets to mobile sites as they do desktop sites, and this is largely contributing to the web feeling slower. While setting img { width: 100%; } will scale media to fit snugly to the container, it is still sending the same high-resolution image to a 320px-wide phone as a 720px-wide tablet. A 1.6mb page loads differently on a phone than the machine it was designed on. The digital divide with which librarians are so familiar is certainly nowhere near closed, but while internet access is increasingly available its ubiquity doesn’t translate to speed:

  1. 50% of users ages 12-29 are “mostly mobile” users, and you know what wireless connections are like,
  2. even so, the weight of the average website ( currently 1.6mb) is increasing.

Last December, analysis of data from pagespeed quantiles during an HTTP Archive crawl tried to determine how fast the web was getting slower. The fastest sites are slowing at a greater rate than the big bloated sites, likely because the assets we send–like increasingly high resolution images to compensate for increasing pixel density in our devices–are getting bigger.

The havoc this wreaks on the load times of “mobile friendly” responsive websites is detrimental. Why? Well, we know that

  • users expect a mobile website to load as fast on their phone as it does on a desktop,
  • three-quarters of users will give up on a website if it takes longer than 4 seconds to load,
  • the optimistic average load time for just a 700kb website on 3G is more like 10-12 seconds

eep O_o.

A Better Responsive Design

So there was a big change to Bootstrap in August 2013 when it was restructured from a “responsive down to mobile” framework to “mobile-first.” It has also been given a simpler, flat design, which has 100% faster paint time – but I digress. “Mobile-first” is key. Emblazon this over the door of the library web committee. Strike “responsive down to mobile.” Suppress the record.

Technically, “mobile-first” describes the structure of the stylesheet using CSS3 Media Queries, which determine when certain styles are rendered by the browser.

.example {
  styles: these load first;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 48em) {

  .example {

    styles: these load once the screen is 48 ems wide;

  }

}

The most basic styles are loaded first. As more space becomes available, designers can assume (sort of) that the user’s device has a little extra juice, that their connection may be better, so they start adding pizzazz. One might make the decision that, hey, most of the devices less than 48em (720px approximately with a base font size of 16px) are probably touch only, so let’s not load any hover effects until the screen is wider.

Nirvana

In a literal sense, mobile-first is asset management. More than that, mobile-first is this philosophical undercurrent, an implicit zen of user-centric thinking that aligns with libraries’ missions to be accessible to all patrons. Designing mobile-first means designing to the lowest common denominator: functional and fast on a cracked Blackberry at peak time; functional and fast on a ten year old machine in the bayou, a browser with fourteen malware toolbars trudging through the mire of a dial-up connection; functional and fast [and beautiful?] on a 23″ iMac. Thinking about the mobile layout first makes design committees more selective of the content squeezed on to the front page, which makes committees more concerned with the quality of that content.

The Point

This is the important statement that Bootstrap now makes. It expects the design committee to think mobile-first. It comes with all the components you could want, but they want you to trim the fat.

Future Friendly Bootstrapping

This is what you get in the stock Bootstrap:

  • buttons, tables, forms, icons, etc. (97kb)
  • a theme (20kb)
  • javascripts (30kb)
  • oh, and jQuery (94kb)

That’s almost 250kb of website. This is like a browser eating a brick of Mackinac Island Fudge – and this high calorie bloat doesn’t include images. Consider that if the median load time for a 700kb page is 10-12 seconds on a phone, half that time with out-of-the-box Bootstrap is spent loading just the assets.

While it’s not totally deal-breaking, 100kb is 5x as much CSS as an average site should have, as well as 15%-20% of what all the assets on an average page should weigh. Josh Broton

To put this in context, I like to fall back on Ilya Girgorik’s example comparing load time to user reaction in his talk “Breaking the 1000ms Time to Glass Mobile Barrier.” If the site loads in just 0-100 milliseconds, this feels instant to the user. By 100-300ms, the site already begins to feel sluggish. At 300-1000ms, uh – is the machine working? After 1 second there is a mental context switch, which means that the user is impatient, distracted, or consciously aware of the load-time. After 10 seconds, the user gives up.

By choosing not to pair down, your Bootstrapped Library starts off on the wrong foot.

The Temptation to Widgetize

Even though Bootstrap provides modals, tabs, carousels, autocomplete, and other modules, this doesn’t mean a website needs to use them. Bootstrap lets you tailor which jQuery plugins are included in the final script. The hardest part of any redesign is to let quality content determine the tools, not the ability to tabularize or scrollspy be an excuse to implement them. Oh, don’t Google those. I’ll touch on tabs and scrollspy in a few minutes.

I am going to be super presumptuous now and walk through the total Bootstrap package, then make recommendations for lightening the load.

Transitions

Transitions.js is a fairly lightweight CSS transition polyfill. What this means is that the script checks to see if your user’s browser supports CSS Transitions, and if it doesn’t then it simulates those transitions with javascript. For instance, CSS transitions often handle the smooth, uh, transition between colors when you hover over a button. They are also a little more than just pizzazz. In a recent article, Rachel Nabors shows how transition and animation increase the usability of the site by guiding the eye.

With that said, CSS Transitions have pretty good browser support and they probably aren’t crucial to the functionality of the library website on IE9.

Recommendation: Don’t Include.

 Modals

“Modals” are popup windows. There are plenty of neat things you can do with them. Additionally, modals are a pain to design consistently for every browser. Let Bootstrap do that heavy lifting for you.

Recommendation: Include

Dropdown

It’s hard to conclude a library website design committee without a lot of links in your menu bar. Dropdown menus are kind of tricky to code, and Bootstrap does a really nice job keeping it a consistent and responsive experience.

Recommendation: Include

Scrollspy

If you have a fixed sidebar or menu that follows the user as they read, scrollspy.js can highlight the section of that menu you are currently viewing. This is useful if your site has a lot of long-form articles, or if it is a one-page app that scrolls forever. I’m not sure this describes many library websites, but even if it does, you probably want more functionality than Scrollspy offers. I recommend jQuery-Waypoints – but only if you are going to do something really cool with it.

Recommendation: Don’t Include

Tabs

Tabs are a good way to break-up a lot of content without actually putting it on another page. A lot of libraries use some kind of tab widget to handle the different search options. If you are writing guides or tutorials, tabs could be a nice way to display the text.

Recommendation: Include

Tooltips

Tooltips are often descriptive popup bubbles of a section, option, or icon requiring more explanation. Tooltips.js helps handle the predictable positioning of the tooltip across browsers. With that said, I don’t think tooltips are that engaging; they’re sometimes appropriate, but you definitely use to see more of them in the past. Your library’s time is better spent de-jargoning any content that would warrant a tooltip. Need a tooltip? Why not just make whatever needs the tooltip more obvious O_o?

Recommendation: Don’t Include

Popover

Even fancier tooltips.

Recommendation: Don’t Include

Alerts

Alerts.js lets your users dismiss alerts that you might put in the header of your website. It’s always a good idea to give users some kind of control over these things. Better they read and dismiss than get frustrated from the clutter.

Recommendation: Include

Collapse

The collapse plugin allows for accordion-style sections for content similarly distributed as you might use with tabs. The ease-in-ease-out animation triggers motion-sickness and other aaarrghs among users with vestibular disorders. You could just use tabs.

Recommendation: Don’t Include

Button

Button.js gives a little extra jolt to Bootstrap’s buttons, allowing them to communicate an action or state. By that, imagine you fill out a reference form and you click “submit.” Button.js will put a little loader icon in the button itself and change the text to “sending ….” This way, users are told that the process is running, and maybe they won’t feel compelled to click and click and click until the page refreshes. This is a good thing.

Recommendation: Include

Carousel

Carousels are the most popular design element on the web. It lets a website slideshow content like upcoming events or new material. Carousels exist because design committees must be appeased. There are all sorts of reasons why you probably shouldn’t put a carousel on your website: they are largely inaccessible, have low engagement, are slooooow, and kind of imply that libraries hate their patrons.

Recommendation: Don’t Include.

Affix

I’m not exactly sure what this does. I think it’s a fixed-menu thing. You probably don’t need this. You can use CSS.

Recommendation: Don’t Include

Now, Don’t You Feel Better?

Just comparing the bootstrap.js and bootstrap.min.js files between out-of-the-box Bootstrap and one tailored to the specs above, which of course doesn’t consider the differences in the CSS, the weight of the images not included in a carousel (not to mention the unquantifiable amount of pain you would have inflicted), the numbers are telling:

File Before After
bootstrap.js 54kb 19kb
bootstrap.min.js 29kb 10kb

So, Bootstrap Responsibly

There is more to say. When bouncing this topic around twitter awhile ago, Jeremy Prevost pointed out that Bootstrap’s minified assets can be GZipped down to about 20kb total. This is the right way to serve assets from any framework. It requires an Apache config or .htaccess rule. Here is the .htaccess file used in HTML5 Boilerplate. You’ll find it well commented and modular: go ahead and just copy and paste the parts you need. You can eke out even more performance by “lazy loading” scripts at a given time, but these are a little out of the scope of this post.

Here’s the thing: when we talk about having good library websites we’re mostly talking about the look. This is the wrong discussion. Web designs driven by anything but the content they already have make grasping assumptions about how slick it would look to have this killer carousel, these accordions, nifty tooltips, and of course a squishy responsive design. Subsequently, these responsive sites miss the point: if anything, they’re mobile unfriendly.

Much of the time, a responsive library website is used as a marker that such-and-such site is credible and not irrelevant, but as such the website reflects a lack of purpose (e.g., “this website needs to increase library-card registration). A superficial understanding of responsive webdesign and easy-to-grab frameworks entail that the patron is the least priority.

 

About Our Guest Author :

Michael Schofield is a front-end librarian in south Florida, where it is hot and rainy – always. He tries to do neat things there. You can hear him talk design and user experience for libraries on LibUX.


LibraryQuest Levels Up

Almost a year ago, GVSU Libraries launched LibraryQuest, our mobile quest-based game. It was designed to teach users about library spaces and services in a way that (we hoped) would be fun and engaging.  The game was released “into the wild” in the last week of August, 2013, which is the beginning of our fall semester.  It ran continuously until late November, shortly after midterms (we wanted to end early enough in the semester that we still had students on campus for post-game assessment efforts).  For details on the early development of the game, take a look at my earlier ACRL TechConnect post.  This article will focus on what happened after launch.

Screenshot of one of the quests.

A screenshot from one of our simpler quests as it was being played.

Running the Game

Once the app was released, we settled on a schedule that would put out between three to five new quests each month the game ran.  Designing quests is very time intensive, and 3-5 a month was all we could manage with the man and woman power we had available. We also had short duration quests run at random intervals to encourage students to keep checking the app.  Over the course of the game, we created about 30 quests total.  Almost all quests were designed with a specific educational objective in mind, such as showing students how a specific library system worked or where something or someone was in the physical building.  Quests were chiefly designed by our Digital Initiatives Librarian (me) with help and support from our implementation team and other staff in the library as needed.

For most of the quests, we developed quest write-up sheets like this one:  Raiders of the Lost…Bin.  The sheets detailed the name of the quest, points, educational objective, steps, completion codes, and any other information that defined the quest.  These sheets proved invaluable whenever a staff member needed to know something about a quest, which was often.  Even simple quests like the one above required a fair amount of cooperation and coordination.  For the raiders quest, we needed a special cataloging record created, we had to tag several plastic crowns and get them into our automatic storage and retrieval system.

For every quest players completed, they earned points.  For every thirty points they earned, they were entered once in a drawing to win an iPad.  This was a major component of the game’s advertising, since we imagined it would be the biggest draw to play (and we may not have been right, as you’ll see).  Once the game closed in November, we held the drawing, publicized the winner, and then commenced a round of post-game assessment.

Thank You for Playing: Post-Game Assessment

When the game wrapped in mid-November, we took some time to examine the statistics the game had collected.  One of our very talented design students created a game dashboard that showed all the metrics collected by the game database in graphic form. The final tally of registered players came in at 397. That means 397 people downloaded the app and logged in at least once (in case you’re curious, the total enrollment of GVSU is 25,000 students). This number probably includes a few non-students (since anyone could download the app), but we did some passes throughout the life of the game to remove non-student players from the tally and so feel confident that the vast majority of registered players are students. During development, we set a goal of having at least 300 registered players, based mostly on the cost of the game and how much money we had spent on other outreach efforts.  So we did, technically, meet that goal, but a closer examination of the numbers paints a more nuanced picture of student participation.

A screenshot of the LibraryQuest Dashboard

A detail from our game dashboard. This part shows overall numbers and quest completion dates.

Of the registered players, 173 earned points, meaning they completed at least one quest.  That means that 224 players downloaded the app and logged in at least once, but then failed to complete any quest content.  Clearly, getting players to take the first step and get involved in the game was somehow problematic.  There are any number of explanations for this, including encounters with technical problems that may have turned players off (the embedded QR code scanner was a problem throughout the life of the game), an unwillingness to travel to locations to do physical quests, or something else entirely.  The maximum number of points you could earn was 625, which was attained by one person, although a few others came close. Players tended to cluster at the lower and middle of the point spectrum, which was entirely expected.  Getting the maximum number of points required a high degree of dedication, since it meant paying very close attention to the app for all the temporary, randomly appearing quests.

A shot of a different aspect of the LibraryQuest Game dashboard.

Another detail from the game dashboard, showing acceptance and completion metrics for some of the quests. We used this extensively to determine which quests to retire at the end of the month.

In general, online-only quests were more popular than quests involving physical space, and were taken and completed more often.  Of the top five most-completed quests, four are online-only.  There are a number of possible explanations for this, including the observation offered by one of our survey recipients that possibly a lot of players were stationed at our downtown campus and didn’t want to travel to our Allendale campus, which is where most of the physical quests were located.

Finally, of our 397 registered users, only 60 registered in the second semester the game ran.  The vast majority signed up soon after game launch, and registrations tapered off over time.  This reinforced data we collected from other sources that suggested the game ran for too long and the pacing needed to be sped up.

In addition to data collected from the game itself, we also put out two surveys over the course of the game. The first was a mid-game survey that asked questions about quest design (what quests students liked or didn’t like, and why).  Responses to this survey were bewilderingly contradictory. Students would cite a quest as their favorite, while others would cite the exact same quest as their least favorite (and often for the same reasons).  The qualitative post-game evaluation we did provides some possible explanation for this (see below).  The second survey was a simple post-game questionnaire that asked whether students had enjoyed the game, whether they’d learned something, and if this was something we should continue doing.  We also asked if they had learned anything, and if so, what they had learned.  90% of the respondents to this survey indicated that they had learned something about the library, that they thought this was a good idea, and that it was something we should do again.

Finally, we offered players points and free coffee to come in to the library and spend 15-20 minutes talking to us about their experience playing the game.  We kept questions short and simple to keep within the time window.  We asked about overall impressions of the game, if the students would change anything, if they learned anything (and if so, what) and about what quests they liked or didn’t like and why.  The general tone of the feedback was very positive. Students seemed intrigued by the idea and appreciated that the library was trying to teach in nontraditional, self-directed ways.  When asked to sum up their overall impressions of the game, students said things like “Very well done, but could be improved upon”or “good but needs polish,” or my personal favorite: “an effective use of bribery to learn about the library.”

One of the things we asked people about was whether the game had changed how they thought about the library. They typically answered that it wasn’t so much that the game had changed how they thought about the library so much as it changed the way they thought about themselves in relation to it. They used words like “”aware,” “confident,” and “knowledgeable.”  They felt like they knew more about what they could do here and what we could do for them. Their retention of some of the quest content was remarkable, including library-specific lingo and knowledge of specific procedures (like how to use the retrieval system and how document delivery worked).

Players noted a variety of problems with the game. Some were technical in nature. The game app takes a long time to load, likely because of the way the back-end is designed. Some of them didn’t like the facebook login.  Stability on android devices was problematic (this is no surprise, as developing the android version was by far the more problematic part of developing the app).  Other problems were nontechnical, including quest content that didn’t work or took too long (my own lack of experience designing quests is to blame), communication issues (there’s no way to let us know when quest content doesn’t work), the flow and pacing of new quests (more content faster), and marketing issues.  These problems may in part account for the low on boarding numbers in terms of players that actually completed content.

They also had a variety of reasons for playing. While most cited the iPad grand prize as the major motivator, several of them said they wanted to learn about the library or were curious about the game, and that they thought it might be fun. This may explain differing reactions to the quest content survey that so confused me.  People who just wanted to have fun were irked by quests that had an overt educational goal.  Students who just wanted the iPad didn’t want to do lengthy or complex quests. Students who loved games for the fun wanted very hard quests that challenged them.  This diversity of desire is something all game developers struggle to cope with, and it’s a challenge for designing popular games that appeal to a wide variety of people.

Where to Go from Here

Deciding whether or not Library Quest has been successful depends greatly on what angle you look at the results from.  On one hand, the game absolutely taught people things.  Students in the survey and interviews were able to list concrete things they knew how to do, often in detail and using terminology directly from the game.  One student proudly showed us a book she had gotten from ILL, which she hadn’t known how to use before she played.  On the other hand, the overall participation was low, especially when contrasted against the expense and staff time of creating and running the game.  Looking only at the money spent (approximately $14,700), it’s easy to calculate an output of about $85 per student reached (173 with points) in development, prizes, and advertising.  The challenge is creating engaging games that are appealing to a large number of students in a way that’s economical in terms of staff time and resources.

After looking at all of this data and talking to Yeti CGI, our development partners, we feel there is still a great deal for us to learn here, and the results are promising enough that we should continue to experiment.  Both organizations feel there is still a great deal to learn about making games in physical space and that we’ve just scratched the surface of what we might be able to do.  With the lessons we have learned from this round of the game, we are looking to completely redesign the way the game app works, as well as revise the game into a shorter, leaner experience that does not require as much content or run so long.   In addition, we are seeking campus partners who would be interested in using the app in classes, as part of student life events, or in campus orientation.  Even if these events don’t directly involve the library, we can learn from the experience how to design better quest content that the library can use.  Embedding the app in smaller and more fixed events helps with marketing and cost issues.

Because the app design is so expensive, we are looking into the possibility of a research partnership with Yeti CGI.  We could both benefit from learning more about how mobile gaming works in a physical space, and sharing those lessons would get us Yeti’s help rebuilding the app as well as working with us to figure out content creation and pacing, without another huge outlay of development capital. We are also looking at ways to turn the game development itself into an educational opportunity. By working with our campus mobile app development lab, we can provide opportunities for GVSU students to learn app design.  Yeti is looking at making more of the game’s technical architecture open (for example, we are thinking about having all quest content marked up in XML) so that students can build custom interfaces and tools for the game.

Finally, we are looking at grants to support running and revising the game.  Our initial advertising and incentives budgets were very low, and we are curious to see what would happen if we put significant resources into those areas.  Would we see bigger numbers?  Would other kinds of rewards in addition to the iPad (something asked for by students) entice players into completing more quest content?  Understanding exactly how much money needs to be put into incentives and advertising can help quantify the total cost of running a large, open game for libraries, which would be valuable information for other libraries contemplating running large-scale games.

Get the LibraryQuest App: (iPhoneAndroid)

 

About our Guest Author:
Kyle Felker is the Digital Initiatives Librarian at Grand Valley State University Libraries, where he has worked since February of 2012.  He is also a longtime gamer.  He can be reached at felkerk@gvsu.edu, or on twitter @gwydion9.


Future? Libraries? What Now? – After the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries

I attended the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries a few weeks ago.

[Let’s give it a minute for that to sink in.]

ALA President Barbara Stripling at the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries at the Library of Congress

ALA President Barbara Stripling at the ALA Summit on the Future of Libraries at the Library of Congress. (Photo by the author)

Yes, that was that controversial Summit that was much talked about on Twitter with the #libfuturesummit hashtag. This Summit and other summits with a similar theme close to one another in timing – “The Future of Libraries Survival Summit” hosted by Information Today Inc. and “The Future of Libraries: Do We Have Five Years to Live?” hosted by Ken Heycock Associates Inc. and Dysart & Jones Associates – seemed to have brought out the sentiment that Andy Woodworth aptly named ‘Library Future Fatigue.’ It was impressive experience to see how active librarians – both ALA members and non-members – were in providing real-time comments and feedback about these summits while I was at one of those in person. I thought ALA is lucky to have such engaged members and librarians to work with.

A few days ago, ALA released the official Summit report.1 The report captured all the talks and many table discussions in great detail. In this post, I will focus on some of my thoughts and take-aways prompted by the talks and the table discussion at the Summit.

A. The Draw

Here is an interesting fact. The invitation to this Summit sat in my Inbox for over a month because from the email subject I thought it was just another advertisement for a fee-based webinar or workshop. It was only after I had gotten another email from the ALA office asking about the previous e-mail that I realized that it was something different.

What drew me to this Summit were: (a) I have never been at a formal event organized just for a discussion about the future of libraries, (b) the event were to include a good number of people outside of the libraries, and (c) the overall size of the Summit would be kept relatively small.

For those curious, the Summit had 51 attendees plus 6 speakers, a dozen discussion table facilitators, all of whom fit into the Members’ Room in the Library of Congress. Out of those 51 attendees, 9 of them were from the non-library sector such as Knight Foundation, PBS, Rosen Publishing, and Aspen Institute. 33 attendees ranged from academic librarians to public, school, federal, corporate librarians, library consultants, museum and archive folks, an LIS professor, and library vendors. And then there were 3 ALA presidents (current, past, and president-elect) and 6 officers from ALA. You can see the list of participants here.

B. Two Words (or Phrases)

At the beginning of the Summit, the participants were asked to come up with two words or short phrases that capture what they think about libraries “from now on.” We wrote these on the ribbons and put right under our name tags. Then we were encouraged to keep or change them as we move through the Summit.

My two phrases were “Capital and Labor” and “Peer-to-Peer.” I kept those two until the end of the Summit and didn’t change. I picked “Capital and Labor” because recently I have been thinking more about the socioeconomic background behind the expansion of post-secondary education (i.e. higher ed) and how it affects the changes in higher education and academic libraries.2 And of course, the fact that Thomas Picketty’s book, Capital in the 21st Century, was being reviewed and discussed all over in the mass media contributed to that choice of the words as well. In my opinion, libraries “from now on” will be closely driven by the demands of the capital and the labor market and asked to support more and more of the peer-to-peer learning activities that have become widespread with the advent of the Internet.

Other phrases and words I saw from other participants included “From infrastructure to engagement,” “Sanctuary for learning,” “Universally accessible,” “Nimble and Flexible,” “From Missionary to Mercenary,” “Ideas into Action,” and “Here, Now.” The official report also lists some of the words that were most used by participants. If you choose your two words or phrases that capture what you think about libraries “from now on,” what would those be?

C. The Set-up

The Summit organizers have filled the room with multiple round tables, and the first day morning, afternoon, and the second day morning, participants sat at the table according to the table number assigned on the back of their name badges. This was a good method that enabled participants to have discussion with different groups of people throughout the Summit.

As the Summit agenda shows, the Summit program started with a talk by a speaker. After that, participants were asked to personally reflect on the talk and then have a table discussion. This discussion was captured on the large poster-size papers by facilitators and collected by the event organizers. The papers on which we were asked to write our personal reflections were  also collected in the same way along with all our ribbons on which we wrote those two words or phrases. These were probably used to produce the official Summit report.

One thing I liked about the set-up was that every participant sat at a round table including speakers and all three ALA presidents (past, president, president-elect). Throughout the Summit, I had a chance to talk to Lorcan Dempsey from OCLC, Corinne Hill, the director of Chattanooga Public Library, Courtney Young, the ALA president-elect, and Thomas Frey, a well-known futurist at DaVinci Institute, which was neat.

Also, what struck me most during the Summit was that those who were outside of the library took the guiding questions and the following discussion much more seriously than those of us who are inside the library world. Maybe indeed we librarians are suffering from ‘library future fatigue.’ And/or maybe outsiders have more trust in libraries as institutions than we librarians do because they are less familiar with our daily struggles and challenges in the library operation. Either way, the Summit seemed to have given them an opportunity to seriously consider the future of libraries. The desired impact of this would be more policymakers, thought leaders, and industry leaders who are well informed about today’s libraries and will articulate, support, and promote the significant work libraries do to the benefit of the society in their own areas.

D. Talks, Table Discussion, and Some of My Thoughts and Take-aways

These were the talks given during the two days of the Summit:

  • “How to Think Like a Freak” – Stephen Dubner, Journalist
  • “What Are Libraries Good For?” – Joel Garreau, Journalist
  • “Education in the Future: Anywhere, Anytime” – Dr. Renu Khator, Chancellor and President at the University of Houston
  • “From an Internet of Things to a Library of Things” – Thomas Frey, Futurist
  • A Table Discussion of Choice:
    • Open – group decides the topic to discuss
    • Empowering individuals and families
    • Promoting literacy, particularly in children and youth
    • Building communities the library serves
    • Protecting and empowering access to information
    • Advancing research and scholarship at all levels
    • Preserving and/or creating cultural heritage
    • Supporting economic development and good government
  • “What Happened at the Summit?” – Joan Frye Williams, Library consultant

(0) Official Report, Liveblogging Posts, and Tweets

As I mentioned earlier, ALA released the 15-page official report of the Summit, which provides the detailed description of each talk and table discussion. Carolyn Foote, a school librarian and one of the Summit participants, also live-blogged all of the these talks in detail. I highly recommend reading her notes on Day 1, Day 2, and Closing in addition to the official report. The tweets from the Summit participants with the official hashtag, #libfuturesummit, will also give you an idea of what participants found exciting at the Summit.

(1) Redefining a Problem

The most fascinating story in the talk by Dubner was Kobe, the hot dog eating contest champion from Japan. The secret of his success in the eating contest was rethinking the accepted but unchallenged artificial limits and redefining the problem, said Dubner. In Kobe’s case, he redefined the problem from ‘How can I eat more hotdogs?’ to ‘How can I eat one hotdog faster?’ and then removed artificial limits – widely accepted but unchallenged conventions – such as when you eat a hot dog you hold it in the hand and eat it from the top to the bottom. He experimented with breaking the hotdog into two pieces to feed himself faster with two hands. He further refined his technique by eating the frankfurter and the bun separately to make the eating even speedier.

So where can libraries apply this lesson? One thing I can think of is the problem of the low attendance of some library programs. What if we ask what barriers we can remove instead of asking what kind of program will draw more people? Chattanooga Public Library did exactly this. Recently, they targeted the parents who would want to attend the library’s author talk and created an event that would specifically address the child care issue. The library scheduled a evening story time for kids and fun activities for tween and teens at the same time as the author talk. Then they asked parents to come to the library with the children, have their children participate in the library’s children’s programs, and enjoy themselves at the library’s author talk without worrying about the children.

Another library service that I came to learn about at my table was the Zip Books service by the Yolo county library in California. What if libraries ask what the fastest to way to deliver a book that the library doesn’t have to a patron’s door would be instead of asking how quickly the cataloging department can catalog a newly acquired book to get it ready for circulation? The Yolo county library Zip Books service came from that kind of redefinition of a problem. When a library user requests a book the library doesn’t have but meets certain requirements, the Yolo County Library purchases the book from a bookseller and have it shipped directly to the patron’s home without processing the book. Cataloging and processing is done when the book is returned to the library after the first use.

(2) What Can Happen to Higher Education

My favorite talk during the Summit was by Dr. Khator because she had deep insight in higher education and I have been working at university libraries for a long time. The two most interesting observations she made were the possibility of (a) the decoupling of the content development and the content delivery and (b) the decoupling of teaching and credentialing in higher education.

The upside of (a) is that some wonderful class a world-class scholar created may be taught by other instructors at places where the person who originally developed the class is not available. The downside of (a) is, of course, the possibility of it being used as the cookie-cutter type lowest baseline for quality control in higher education – University of Phoenix mentioned as an example of this by one of the participants at my table – instead of college and university students being exposed to the classes developed and taught by their institutions’ own individual faculty members.

I have to admit that (b) was a completely mind-blowing idea to me. Imagine colleges and universities with no credentialing authority. Your degree will no longer be tied to a particular institution to which you were admitted and graduate from. Just consider the impact of what this may entail if it ever becomes realized. If both (a) and (b) take place at the same time, the impact would be even more significant. What kind of role could an academic library play in such a scenario?

(3) Futurizing Libraries

Joe Garreau observed that nowadays what drives the need for a physical trip is more and more a face-to-face contact than anything else. Then he pointed out that as technology allows more people to tele-work, people are flocking to smaller cities where they can have a more meaningful contact with the community. If this is indeed the case, libraries that make their space a catalyst for a face-to-face contact in a community will prosper. Last speaker, Thomas Frey, spoke mostly about the Internet of Things (IoT).

While I think that IoT is an important trend to note, for sure, what I most liked about Frey’s talk was his statement that the vision of future we have today will change the decisions we make (towards that future). After the talk by Garreau, I had a chance to ask him a question about his somewhat idealized vision of the future, in which people live and work in a small but closely connected community in a society that is highly technological and collaborative. He called this ‘human evolution’.

But in my opinion, the reality that we see today in my opinion is not so idyllic.3 The current economy is highly volatile. It no longer offers job security, consistently reduces the number of jobs, and returns either stagnant or decreasing amount of income for those whose skills are not in high demand in the era of digital revolution.4 As a result, today’s college students, who are preparing to become tomorrow’s knowledge workers, are perceiving their education and their lives after quite differently than their parents did.5

Garreau’s answer to my question was that this concern of mine may be coming from a kind of techno-determinism. While this may be a fair critique, I felt that his portrayal of the human evolution may be just as techno-deterministic. (To be fair, he mentioned that he does not make predictions and this is one of the future scenarios he sees.)

Regarding the topic of the Internet of Things (IoT), which was the main topic of Frey’s talk, the privacy and the proper protection of the massive amount of data – which will result from the very many sensors that makes IoT possible – will be the real barrier to implementing the IoT on a large scale. After his talk, I had a chance to briefly chat with him about this. (There was no Q&A because Frey’s talk went over the time allotted). He mentioned the possibility of some kind of an international gathering similar to the scale of the Geneva Conventions to address the issue. While the likelihood of that is hard to assess, the idea seemed appropriate to the problem in question.

(4) What If…?

One of the slides from Thoams Frey's Talk at the ALA Summit. (Photo by the author)

One of the slides from Thomas Frey’s Talk at the ALA Summit. (Photo by the author)

Some of the shiny things shown at the talk, whose value for library users may appear dubious and distant, however, prompted Eli Neiburger at Ann Arbor District Library to question which useful service libraries can offer to provide the public with significant benefit now. He wondered what it would be like if many libraries ran a Tor exit node to help the privacy and anonymity of the web traffic, for example.

For those who are unfamiliar, Tor (the Onion Router) is “free software and an open network that helps you defend against traffic analysis, a form of network surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy, confidential business activities and relationships, and state security.” Tor is not foolproof, but it is still the best tool for privacy and anonymity on the Web.

Eli’s idea is a truly wild one because there are so many libraries in the US and the public’s privacy in the US is in such a precarious state.6 Running a Tor exit node is not a walk in the park as this post by someone who actually set up a Tor exit node on a hosted virtual server in Germany attests. But libraries have been a serious and dedicated advocate for privacy for people’s intellectual freedom for a long time and have a strong network of alliance. There is also the useful guidelines and tips that Tor provides in their website.

Just pause a minute and imagine what kind of impact such a project by libraries may have to the privacy of the public. What if?

(5) Leadership and Sustainability

For the “Table Discussion of Choice” session, I opted for the “Open” table because I was curious in what other topics people were interested. Two discussions at this session were most memorable to me. One was the great advice I got from Corinne Hill regarding leading people. A while ago, I read her interview, in which she commented that “the staff are just getting comfortable with making decisions.” In my role as a relatively new manager, I also found empowering my team members to be more autonomous decision makers a challenge. Corinne particularly cautioned that leaders should be very careful about not being over-critical when the staff takes an initiative but makes a bad decision. Being over-critical in that case can discourage the staff from trying to make their own decisions in their expertise areas, she said. Hearing her description of how she relies on the different types of strengths in her staff to move her library in the direction of innovation was also illuminating to me. (Lorcan Dempsey who was also at our table mentioned “Birkman Quadrants” in relation to Corinne’s description, a set of useful theoretical constructs. He also brought up the term ‘Normcore’ at another session. I forgot the exact context of that term, but the term was interesting that I wrote it down.) We also talked for a while about the current LIS education and how it is not sufficiently aligned with the skills needed in everyday library operation.

The other interesting discussion started with the question about the sustainability of the future libraries by Amy Garmer from Aspen Institute. (She has been working on a library-related project with various policy makers, and PLA has a program related to this project at the upcoming 2014 ALA Annual Conference if you are interested.) One thought that always comes to my mind whenever I think about the future of libraries is that while in the past the difference between small and large libraries was mostly quantitative in terms of how many books and other resources were available, in the present and future, the difference is and will be more qualitative. What New York Public Libraries offers for their patrons, a whole suite of digital library products from the NYPL Labs for example, cannot be easily replicated by a small rural library. Needless to say, this has a significant implication for the core mission of the library, which is equalizing the public’s access to information and knowledge. What can we do to close that gap? Or perhaps will different types of libraries have different strategies for the future, as Lorcan Dempsey asked at our table discussion? These two things are not incompatible to be worked out at the same time.

(6) Nimble and Media-Savvy

In her Summit summary, Joanne Frye Williams, who moved around to observe discussions at all tables during the Summit, mentioned that one of the themes that surfaced was thinking about a library as a developing enterprise rather than a stable organization. This means that the modus operandi of a library should become more nimble and flexible to keep the library in the same pace of the change that its community goes through.

Another thread of discussion among the Summit participants was that not all library supporters have to be the active users of the library services. As long as those supporters know that the presence and the service of libraries makes their communities strong, libraries are in a good place. Often libraries make the mistake of trying to reach all of their potential patrons to convert them into active library users. While this is admirable, it is not always practical or beneficial to the library operation. More needed and useful is a well-managed strategic media relations that will effectively publicize the library’s services and programs and its benefits and impact to its community. (On a related note, one journalist who was at the Summit mentioned how she noticed the recent coverage about libraries changing its direction from “Are libraries going to be extinct?” to “No, libraries are not going to be extinct. And do you know libraries offer way more than books such as … ?”, which is fantastic.)

E. What Now? Library Futurizing vs. Library Grounding

What all the discussion at the Summit reminded me was that ultimately the time and efforts we spend on trying to foresee what the future holds for us and on raising concerns about the future may be better directed at refining the positive vision for the desirable future for libraries and taking well-calculated and decisive actions towards the realization of that vision.

Technology is just a tool. It can be used to free people to engage in more meaningful work and creative pursuits. Or it can be used to generate a large number of the unemployed, who have to struggle to make the ends meet and to retool themselves with fast-changing skills that the labor market demands, along with those in the top 1 or 0.1 % of very rich people. And we have the power to influence and determine which path we should and would be on by what we do now.

Certainly, there are trends that we need to heed. For example, the shift of the economy that places a bigger role on entrepreneurship than ever before requires more education and support for entrepreneurship for students at universities and colleges. The growing tendency of the businesses looking for potential employees based upon their specific skill sets rather than their majors and grades has lead universities and colleges to adopt a digital badging system (such as Purdue’s Passport) or other ways for their students to record and prove the job-related skills obtained during their study.

But when we talk about the future, many of us tend to assume that there are some kind of inevitable trends that we either get or miss and that those trends will determine what our future will be. We forget that not some trends but (i) what we intend to achieve in the future and (ii) today’s actions we take to realize that intention are really what determines our future. (Also always critically reflect on whatever is trendy; you may be in for a surprise.7) The fact that people will no longer need to physically visit a library to check out books or access library resources does not automatically mean that the library in the future will cease to have a building. The question is whether we will let that be the case. Suppose we decide that we want the library to be and stay as the vibrant hub for a community’s freedom of inquiry and right to access human knowledge, no matter how much change takes place in the society. Realizing this vision ‘IS’ within our power. We only reach the future by walking through the present.

Notes

  1. Stripling, Barbara. “Report on the Summit on the Future of Libraries.” ALA Connect, May 19, 2014. http://connect.ala.org/node/223667.
  2. Kim, Bohyun. “Higher ‘Professional’ Ed, Lifelong Learning to Stay Employed, Quantified Self, and Libraries.” ACRL TechConnect Blog, March 23, 2014. http://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/?p=4180.
  3. Ibid.
  4. For a short but well-written clear description of this phenomenon, see Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Andrew McAfee. Race against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy. Lexington: Digital Frontier Press, 2012.
  5. Brooks, David. “The Streamlined Life.” The New York Times, May 5, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/06/opinion/brooks-the-streamlined-life.html.
  6. See Timm, Trevor. “Everyone Should Know Just How Much the Government Lied to Defend the NSA.” The Guardian, May 17, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/17/government-lies-nsa-justice-department-supreme-court.
  7. For example, see this article about what the wide adoption of 3D-printing may mean to the public. Sadowski, Jathan, and Paul Manson. “3-D Print Your Way to Freedom and Prosperity.” Al Jazeera America, May 17, 2014. http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/5/3d-printing-politics.html.