The Big Type
Jeffrey Zeldman published a post that explains his choice of big type in his website/blog last week. If you are curious about how huge the type is in his site, see below my screenshot (or visit his site: http://zeldman.com). It is pretty big. Compare it to any Web site or this current site of mine. Yea, the type is huge.
He says people either hate or love the big type and the simplistic/minimalist layout of his site or just spends time processing them. I found myself loving it because hey, it was so fr**king easy to read without any other distraction in the site. As Zeldman himself says, “It’s over the top but not unusable nor, in my opinion, unbeautiful.” And in my opinion, being fully functional counts to a great degree in favor of beauty.
The strange satisfaction that I felt while reading the articles in his site set in the big type has led me to realize how hard it is to read the main content of any common web page. It is usually so hard that the first thing I do before reading any Web page is to increase the font size inside a Web browser (thereby also removing the top navigation and all other things on both sides except the main content out of my sight). Sometimes, I also use the ‘Print’ preview, just to read, not to print anything (since this removes all ads and images etc.). Also handy is a plugin like Readability. Zeldman’s site was the first site where none of these actions was necessary.
The Web design convention with must-have items such as a top navigation, header image, navigation on the left, ads and numerous links on the right forces us to take out those very items by manually manipulating the browser in order to make the main content simply readable! This is an irony that is more than fully appreciated by those who build and manage Web sites in particular. We (the universal we as Web workers) follow the convention as something canonical because we want to build a Web site that is usable and pleasant to interact with. But while interacting with any such conventional site, our own behavior reveals that we try to eliminate those very canonical elements.
It’s not that we can or should eliminate right away all those conventional items. They are useful for various purposes. But the point is that no matter how useful they are, those things are also great distractions in reading. In a Web site or a page where reading is the primary activity, the readability of its content is a greater problem than other sites or pages. Zeldman’s Big Type experiment would be simply bizarre if it is applied without any modification to, say, the WSJ homepage. But it probably is not a bad idea to apply it to an individual article page in the WSJ Web site.
Zeldman’s experimental design with the big type reminds me of what the application, Flipboard, does. (See below the demo video if you are not familiar with the Flipboard app.) It strips off elements that are distracting to reading and re-formats the page in a way that is attractive and functional. Where the design fails to help one to read a Web page, an app comes to rescue.
Now you may ask how all these relate to libraries. My question is: (a) how much of the main function of a library Web site is reading, and how much is not, (b) what parts of a library Web site is to be read and not, and (c) how we can balance and facilitate those different uses of a library Web site. Rarely a Web site is designed solely for reading, but reading is an important part of almost always a certain section of any Web site. So this is an issue that is worth thinking about and matters to not only library Web sites but also any other Web site. Just asking these questions could be a good step towards making your Web pages more usable.
In the next post, I will discuss how we read on the Web and how to design and serve the content for the Web in a user-friendly manner.
Circulating technology collections are seeing increased popularity in academic settings. Devices like the iPad are designed to be refreshed about every year. Observers of the consumer electronics market will note that many of the devices so coveted are designed for obsolescence. This planned obsolescence poses problems for collecting and circulating technology.
Technology is a different type of resource than a book. Librarians know how to preserve books, but in general, the preservation and conservation of electronics is related to a rapidly changing marketplace. Considering the rate of obsolesce and the game we continually lose in the purchase of consumer electronics, what rental models do libraries need in order to maximize collections budgets in this area?
The Nash Equilibrium may be instructive for co-operative models applied to library circulating collections. Two or more libraries that know each other’s choices can cooperate and still pursue individual best interests. In general, this works because each cooperating group doesn’t change its approach based on what the other agent is doing; it assumes the other will continue its maximally beneficial strategy. This is germane to the collection of tech in circulating collections if we consider that no library is entering into the consumer electronics market alone; rather, we are all entering into the same problem area.
We all have a limited collections budget and we are all highly concerned with getting the most out of our shrinking collections budgets — all while innovating and keeping pace with a changing digital landscape.
One non-profit business model I’ve pondered is setting up a type of library co-operative where libraries (the set of all libraries that collect technology for loaning to patrons) do not actually purchase any of the electronics that are planned to become obsolete but rather, by size of their co-operative set are able to pool resources into rental paradigms. We would be able to do this through an open online interface that showed what individual libraries wanted to offer, and what they were able to contribute in order to rent the given technology.
On the co-op’s website, a library or other educational institution would indicate they would like to rent consumer electronics equipment, once the co-op hits a profitable/break-even threshold for renting, then all libraries will get the contract to rent. The reason why this works is because all libraries have chosen to rent for a set period at a set price using Nash equilibria to modulate the rental threshold algorithm.
When the renting contract expires, the co-op can (a) get our rentals back, and sell wholesale, but not as a rule keep any inventory, or (b) if the library (rentee) thinks the technology isn’t obsolete by the time the contract ends, they can purchase at a marked down rate. This is not completely without precedent, since many libraries use a rental option for their new release books.
Such a tech cooperative helps to mitigate the risk of consumer electronic obsolescence for libraries – - there isn’t any purchase, except as managed through the cooperative. And since we know all too well that consumer electronics are built in with designed-obsolescence, it doesn’t make financial sense for a library or educational institution to purchase an item that will not be in demand later, or will only be useful for a short time.
Is this the year for a library technology co-op? Is ALA a place that could manage such an operation; a Tech Co-op housed within LITA? Would your institution participate in such a rental paradigm?
Previously, I wrote about the importance of design in libraries and the design process. Next I’d like to delve in deeper and talk about the elements of design. These elements, or components, are the pieces that make up a whole design. Design elements work together to create a successful design that communicates to your audience if used well.
Most designers would agree, the elements of design are essentially the following:
- space or composition
I am also going to add typography. Though not traditionally an element, choosing type carefully and in some cases even showcasing it within your design, can transform something that meets the status quo into a higher quality design. In carefully crafting your design with an understanding of the elements, your design may be considered not only professional, but memorable.
Rather than talk about all of the elements in this post. I’m going to focus on three to get you started and then I’ll come back to typography and perhaps others in future posts.
With color, composition, and size down, you can create a strong design whether you are making a flyer, sign, promotional materials, or webpage. To create a design considered high quality, nuanced, or sophisticated by design standards, you will need to push further and understand all of the elements. This post is just to get yourself started and able to make something professional that will add to your credibility as a professional organization.
Some have asked me in the past, what credibility has to do with design and libraries and it’s a good question. Without delving too deeply, you can see the above photo where someone has made a simple sign using the typeface comic sans and in response someone calls them out for being unprofessional in using it. Honestly, I have mixed feelings about this image but it still illustrates a valid point: in creating bad design or making poor design choices, you may look unprofessional to your audience. Good design will build trust and credibility with your users. I’ll be including examples throughout this post to show different elements and where they work.
Starting with color, there is an enormous amount of resources on color theory and designing with color. There are scholars who have made a living on researching color alone. To have a successful design, you don’t need to be a color expert but it helps if you have some basics down to understand how color works and doesn’t. It’s a choice to include color in your design- plenty of successful designs are black and white or have minimal color and it’s part of the aesthetic and the message they want to convey.
Sometimes one color is enough; this is called a monochromatic color scheme.
Employing the use of opposite colors on the spectrum together is complementary.
There are numerous ways of combining colors and using them effectively in design. When using color the most important piece to keep in mind is using color consciously, thoughtfully and being aware of individuals who may have vision impairments. You can use many colors in a design, but if not done so with care, it may not achieve the look or convey the message intended. In some cases, misuse of color may not be readable. There are a number of resources available that can assist in putting together a good color palette as well ensuring your colors are accessible.
Composition is where the pieces lay on the page in relation to the page sides, edges and other pieces. Composition may include: an illustration or a logo, title text, headlines, or a call to action, and smaller elements such as a block of text or links. There is a decision to be made about what the most important elements are. Not every element should have the same amount of weight in importance.
In laying out the composition, you’ll want to pay attention to what is referred to as alignment. Often in design you’ll see a strong left alignment where several elements begin at the same starting point on a page; this is fairly conventional and a good choice. Left alignment is certainly not the only successful way to create a composition, but it rarely fails. As the design is being formed it’s good to think of the elements and pieces you are working with abstractly. Imagine them as puzzle pieces or building blocks. Many designers use methods such as the grid, wireframing, or abstract sketching to get a rough sense of the composition. The grid is a good place to start and is a current design trend. My best advice is as you build together the pieces, keeps things somewhat loose and flexible so that you think of the overall page and the pieces in relation to each other, rather than get bogged down by one piece.
On Jessica Hische’s website, she balances a lot of information on each page without losing the quality of the overall design. She showcases portfolio pieces and allows those designs to shine while the composition, typography, and color compliment her efforts and don’t compete for attention. To the right of the large image, Hische aligns the subheading and links to the left, along with the various elements below the link list. Organizing the site in this way creates order and contributes positively to the overall design. Hische devotes a good deal of the composition to white space. Doing so allows the viewer’s eye to rest and directs them back toward the focus, in this case the photo and information on the portfolio piece she is showcasing.
Size is related to composition in that the size of one shape or block of text will relate to others around it.
So, for example, if you have a title, subtitle, author, and publisher and you want to emphasize the title above everything else, then the title will naturally be larger in size. Next, you may want the subtitle to be less than the title but larger than the author or publisher. In some cases, you may want to make the author name the largest element- these are all design decisions relating to size that will convey different things to the audience who sees it.
On Trent Walton’s website, he’s making a point about responsive web design (a topic I hope to delve into in a future post). To communicate his message, he’s using size and color. The bold color and size of the title, Fit to Scale, captures viewer’s attention. There is also variation in size within the text block, drawing out the first sentence for emphasis. The navigation is also a different size, easy to see when it’s needed but not in the way of the message of the page.
Putting design into practice
Now that we’ve gone over some basics, I recommend exploring what designs out there speak to you. Develop a collection of designs you like; whether they are websites, flyers, posters, etc., if there is something you like about the design then study it. Much like writers who read a lot to become better writers, designers will study good design and analyze what makes it good in order to become a better designer.
Get feedback from other designers or others who understand design. There are a number of excellent portfolio websites out there that have extremely rich communities willing to offer a critique in exchange for a critique. These are excellent resources that are invaluable to designers, as meaningful feedback is very difficult to find:
Look more deeply into what elements the designer has employed to make the design successful and ask yourself some questions: what colors did they use? what is the balance between the different colors used? is there whitespace? how is the composition set up? can you identify alignments? how did the designer break apart size?
If there is a design you don’t like it is worth exploring why you don’t like it. Ask the same kinds of questions. What makes it fail to you? Figure out what it is that makes you react strongly
This is a way to get yourself to really think in a design way, observe, and subsequently learn about design. In seeing, you will be a step closer to designing well.
If you can recognize, study and thoughtfully employ these elements and make them work together harmoniously you can make a good design. Keep things simple- better to err on the side of restraint than give too much.
Don’t forget that in designing, you are communicating. Think about the message. What do you want to say and how can you attempt to convince your users to believe you? Are you earning credibility? Trust? What kind of atmosphere are you creating?
Design is an opportunity to give our users a positive experience and perhaps even to delight them.