How to Price 3D Printing Service Fees

Many libraries today provide 3D printing service. But not all of them can afford to do so for free. While free 3D printing may be ideal, it can jeopardize the sustainability of the service over time. Nevertheless, many libraries tend to worry about charging service fees.

In this post, I will outline how I determined the pricing schema for our library’s new 3D Printing service in the hope that more libraries will consider offering 3D printing service if having to charge the fee is a factor stopping them. But let me begin with libraries’ general aversion to fees.

A 3D printer in action at the Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL), Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore

Service Fees Are Not Your Enemy

Charging fees for the library’s service is not something librarians should regard as a taboo. We live in the times in which a library is being asked to create and provide more and more new and innovative services to help users successfully navigate the fast-changing information landscape. A makerspace and 3D printing are certainly one of those new and innovative services. But at many libraries, the operating budget is shrinking rather than increasing. So, the most obvious choice in this situation is to aim for cost-recovery.

It is to be remembered that even when a library aims for cost-recovery, it will be only partial cost-recovery because there is a lot of staff time and expertise that is spent on planning and operating such new services. Libraries should not be afraid to introduce new services requiring service fees because users will still benefit from those services often much more greatly than a commercial equivalent (if any). Think of service fees as your friend. Without them, you won’t be able to introduce and continue to provide a service that your users need. It is a business cost to be expected, and libraries will not make profit out of it (even if they try).

Still bothered? Almost every library charges for regular (paper) printing. Should a library rather not provide printing service because it cannot be offered for free? Library users certainly wouldn’t want that.

Determining Your Service Fees

What do you need in order to create a pricing scheme for your library’s 3D printing service?

(a) First, you need to list all cost-incurring factors. Those include (i) the equipment cost and wear and tear, (ii) electricity, (iii) staff time & expertise for support and maintenance, and (iv) any consumables such as 3d print filament, painter’s tape. Remember that your new 3D printer will not last forever and will need to be replaced by a new one in 3-5 years.

Also, some of these cost-incurring factors such as staff time and expertise for support is fixed per 3D print job. On the other hand, another cost-incurring factor, 3D print filament, for example, is a cost factor that increases in proportion to the size/density of a 3d model that is printed. That is, the larger and denser a 3d print model is, the more filament will be used incurring more cost.

(b) Second, make sure that your pricing scheme is readily understood by users. Does it quickly give users a rough idea of the cost before their 3D print job begins? An obscure pricing scheme can confuse users and may deter them from trying out a new service. That would be bad user experience.

Also in 3D printing, consider if you will also charge for a failed print. Perhaps you do. Perhaps you don’t. Maybe you want to charge a fee that is lower than a successful print. Whichever one you decide on, have that covered since failed prints will certainly happen.

(c) Lastly, the pricing scheme should be easily handled by the library staff. The more library staff will be involved in the entire process of a library patron using the 3D printing service from the beginning to the end, the more important this becomes. If the pricing scheme is difficult for the staff to work with when they need charge for and process each 3D print job, the new 3D printing service will increase their workload significantly.

Which staff will be responsible for which step of the new service? What would be the exact tasks that the staff will need to do? For example, it may be that several staff at the circulation desk need to learn and handle new tasks involving the 3D printing service, such as labeling and putting away completed 3D models, processing the payment transaction, delivering the model, and marking the job status for the paid 3D print job as ‘completed’ in the 3D Printing Staff Admin Portal if there is such a system in place. Below is the screenshot of the HS/HSL 3D Printing Staff Admin Portal developed in-house by the library IT team.

The HS/HSL 3D Printing Staff Admin Portal, University of Maryland, Baltimore

Examples – 3D Printing Service Fees

It’s always helpful to see how other libraries are doing when you need to determine your own pricing scheme. Here are some examples that shows ten libraries’ 3D printing pricing scheme changed over the recent three years.

  • UNR DeLaMare Library
    • https://guides.library.unr.edu/3dprinting
    • 2014 – $7.20 per cubic inch of modeling material (raised to $8.45 starting July, 2014).
    • 2017 – uPrint – Model Material: $4.95 per cubic inch (=16.38 gm=0.036 lb)
    • 2017 – uPrint – Support Materials: $7.75 per cubic inch
  • NCSU Hunt Library
    • https://www.lib.ncsu.edu/do/3d-printing
    • 2014- uPrint 3D Printer: $10 per cubic inch of material (ABS), with a $5 minimum
    • 2014 – MakerBot 3D Printer: $0.35 per gram of material (PLA), with a $5 minimum
    • 2017 – uPrint – $10 per cubic inch of material, $5 minimum
    • 2017 – F306 – $0.35 per gram of material, $5 minimum
  • Southern Illinois University Library
    • http://libguides.siue.edu/3D/request
    • 2014 – Originally $2 per hour of printing time; Reduced to $1 as the demand grew.
    • 2017 – Lulzbot Taz 5, Luzbot mini – $2.00 per hour of printing time.
  • BYU Library
  • University of Michigan Library
    • The Cube 3D printer checkout is no longer offered.
    • 2017 – Cost for professional 3d printing service; Open access 3d printing is free.
  • GVSU Library
  • University of Tennessee, Chattanooga Library
  • Port Washington Public library
  • Miami University
    • 2014 – $0.20 per gram of the finished print; 2017 – ?
  • UCLA Library, Dalhousie University Library (2014)
    • Free

Types of 3D Printing Service Fees

From the examples above, you will notice that many 3d printing service fee schemes are based upon the weight of a 3D-print model. This is because these libraries are trying recover the cost of the 3d filament, and the amount of filament used is most accurately reflected in the weight of the resulting 3D-printed model.

However, there are a few problems with the weight-based 3D printing pricing scheme. First, it is not readily calculable by a user before the print job, because to do so, the user will have to weigh a model that s/he won’t have until it is 3D-printed. Also, once 3D-printed, the staff will have to weigh each model and calculate the cost. This is time-consuming and not very efficient.

For this reason, my library considered an alternative pricing scheme based on the size of a 3D model. The idea was that we will have roughly three different sizes of an empty box – small, medium, and large – with three different prices assigned. Whichever box into which a user’s 3d printed object fits will determine how much the user will pay for her/his 3D-printed model. This seemed like a great idea because it is easy to determine how much a model will cost to 3d-print to both users and the library staff in comparison to the weight-based pricing scheme.

Unfortunately, this size-based pricing scheme has a few significant flaws. A smaller model may use more filament than a larger model if it is denser (meaning the higher infill ratio). Second, depending on the shape of a model, a model that fits in a large box may use much less filament than the one that fits in a small box. Think about a large tree model with think branches. Then compare that with a 100% filled compact baseball model that fits into a smaller box than the tree model does. Thirdly, the resolution that determines a layer height may change the amount of filament used even if what is 3D-printed is a same model.

Different infill ratios – Image from https://www.packtpub.com/sites/default/files/Article-Images/9888OS_02_22.png

Charging Based upon the 3D Printing Time

So we couldn’t go with the size-based pricing scheme. But we did not like the problems of the weight-based pricing scheme, either. As an alternative, we decided to go with the time-based pricing scheme because printing time is proportionate to how much filament is used, but it does not require that the staff weigh the model each time. A 3D-printing software gives an estimate of the printing time, and most 3D printers also display actual printing time for each model printed.

First, we wanted to confirm the hypothesis that 3D printing time and the weight of the resulting model are proportionate to each other. I tested this by translating the weight-based cost to the time-based cost based upon the estimated printing time and the estimated weight of several cube models. Here is the result I got using the Makerbot Replicator 2X.

  • 9.10 gm/36 min= 0.25 gm per min.
  • 17.48 gm/67 min= 0.26 gm per min.
  • 30.80 gm/117 min= 0.26 gm per min.
  • 50.75 gm/186 min=0.27 gm per min.
  • 87.53 gm/316 min= 0.28 gm per min.
  • 194.18 gm/674 min= 0.29 gm per min.

There is some variance, but the hypothesis holds up. Based upon this, now let’s calculate the 3d printing cost by time.

3D plastic filament is $48 for ABS/PLA and $65 for the dissolvable per 0.90 kg (=2.00 lb) from Makerbot. That means that filament cost is $0.05 per gram for ABS/PLA and $0.07 per gram for the dissolvable. So, 3D filament cost is 6 cents per gram on average.

Finalizing the Service Fee for 3D Printing

For an hour of 3D printing time, the amount of filament used would be 15.6 gm (=0.26 x 60 min). This gives us the filament cost of 94 cents per hour of 3D printing (=15.6 gm x 6 cents). So, for the cost-recovery of filament only, I get roughly $1 per hour of 3D printing time.

Earlier, I mentioned that filament is only one of the cost-incurring factors for the 3D printing service. It’s time to bring in those other factors, such as hardware wear/tear, staff time, electricity, maintenance, etc., plus “no-charge-for-failed-print-policy,” which was adopted at our library. Those other factors will add an additional amount per 3D print job. And at my library, this came out to be about $2. (I will not go into details about how these have been determined because those will differ at each library.) So, the final service fee for our new 3D printing service was set to be $3 up to 1 hour of 3D printing + $1 per additional hour of 3D printing. The $3 is broken down to $1 per hour of 3D printing that accounts for the filament cost and $2 fixed cost for every 3D print job.

To help our users to quickly get an idea of how much their 3D print job will cost, we have added a feature to the HS/HSL 3D Print Job Submission Form online. This feature automatically calculates and displays the final cost based upon the printing time estimate that a user enters.

 

The HS/HSL 3D Print Job Submission form, University of Maryland, Baltimore

Don’t Be Afraid of Service Fees

I would like to emphasize that libraries should not be afraid to set service fees for new services. As long as they are easy to understand and the staff can explain the reasons behind those service fees, they should not be a deterrent to a library trying to introduce and provide a new innovative service.

There are clear benefits to running through all cost-incurring factors and communicating how the final pricing scheme was determined (including the verification of the hypothesis that 3D printing time and the weight of the resulting model are proportionate to each other) to all library staff who will be involved in the new 3D printing service. If any library user inquire about or challenges the service fee, the staff will be able to provide a reasonable explanation on the spot.

I have implemented this pricing scheme at the same time as the launch of my library’s makerspace (the HS/HSL Innovation Space at the University of Maryland, Baltimore – http://www.hshsl.umaryland.edu/services/ispace/) back in April 2015. We have been providing 3D printing service and charging for it for more than two years. I am happy to report that during that entire duration, we have not received any complaint about the service fee. No library user expected our new 3D printing service to be free, and all comments that we received regarding the service fee were positive. Many expressed a surprise at how cheap our 3D printing service is and thanked us for it.

To summarize, libraries should be willing to explore and offer new innovating services even when they require charging service fees. And if you do so, make sure that the resulting pricing scheme for the new service is (a) sustainable and accountable, (b) readily graspable by users, and (c) easily handled by the library staff who will handle the payment transaction. Good luck and happy 3D printing at your library!

An example model with the 3D printing cost and the filament info displayed at the HS/HSL, University of Maryland, Baltimore


Hosting a Coding Challenge in the Library

In Fall of 2016, the city of Los Angeles held a 2-week “Innovate LA” event intended to celebrate innovation and creativity within the LA region.  Dozens of organizations around Los Angeles held events during Innovate LA to showcase and provide resources for making, invention, and application development.  As part of this event, the library at California State University, Northridge developed and hosted two weeks of coding challenges, designed to introduce novice coders to basic development using existing tutorials. Coders were rewarded with digital badges distributed by the application Credly.

The primary organization of the events came out of the library’s Creative Media Studio, a space designed to facilitate audio and video production as well as experimentation with emerging technologies such as 3D printing and virtual reality.  Users can use computers and recording equipment in the space, and can check out media production devices, such as camcorders, green screens, GoPros, and more.  Our aim was to provide a fun, very low-stress way to learn about coding, provide time for new coders to get hands-on help with coding tutorials, and generally celebrate how coding can be fun.  While anyone was welcome to join, our marketing efforts specifically focused on students, with coding challenges distributed daily throughout the Innovate LA period through Facebook.

The Challenges

The coding challenges were sourced from existing coding tutorial sites such as Free Code CampLearn Ruby and Codecademy.  We wanted to offer a mix of front-end and server side coding challenges, starting with HTML, CSS and JavaScript and ramping up to PHP, Python, and Ruby.  We tested out several free tutorials and chose tutorials that had the most straightforward instructions that provided immediate feedback about incorrect code. We also tried to keep the interfaces consistent, using Free Code Camp most frequently so participants could get used to the interface and focus on coding rather than the tutorial mechanism itself.

Here’s a list of the challenges and their corresponding badges earned:

Challenge Badge Received
Say Hello to the HML Elements, Headline with the H2 Element, Inform with the Paragraph Element HTML Ninja
Change the Color of Text, Use CSS Selectors to Style Elements, Use a CSS Class to Style an Element CSS Ninja
Use Responsive Design with Bootstrap Fluid Containers, Make Images Mobile Responsive, Center Text with Bootstrap Bootstrapper
Comment your JavaScript Code, Declare JavaScript Variables, Storing Values with the Assignment Operator JavaScript Hacker
Learn how Script Tags and Document Ready Work, Target HTML Elements with Selectors Using jQuery, Target Elements by Class Using jQuery jQuery Ninja
Uncomment HTML, Comment out HTML, Fill in the Blank with Placeholder Text HTML Master
Style Multiple Elements with a CSS Class, Change the Font Size of an Element, Set the Font Family of an Element CSS Master
Create a Bootstrap Button, Create a a Block Element Bootstrap Button, Taste the Bootstrap Button Color Rainbow Bootstrap Master
Getting Started and Cat/Dog JS Game Maker
Target Elements by ID Using jQuery, Delete your jQuery Functions, Target the same element with multiple jQuery selectors jQuery Master
Hello World

Variables and Types

Lists

Python Ninja
Hello World, Variables and Types, Simple Arrays PHP Ninja
Hello World, Variables and Types, Math Ruby Ninja
How to Use APIs with JavaScript (complete through Step 9: Authentication and API Keys) API Ninja
Edit or create a wikipedia page. You may join in at the Wikipedia Edit-a-thon or do editing remotely. The Citation Hunt tool is a cool/easy way of going about editing a Wikipedia page. Narrow it to a topic that interests you and make. WikiWiz
Create a 3D Model for an original animated character. You may use TinkerCAD or Blender as free options or feel free to use SolidWorks AutoCAD if you are familiar with them. If you don’t know where to begin, TinkerCAD has step by step tutorials for you to bring your ideas to life. 3D Designer
Get a selfie with a Google Cardboard or any virtual reality goggles VR Explorer

Note the final three challenges – editing a Wikipedia page, creating a 3D model, and experimenting with Google Cardboard or other virtual reality (VR) goggles are not coding challenges, but we wanted to use the opportunity to promote some of the other services the Creative Media Studio provides.  Conveniently, the library was hosting a Wikipedia Edit-A-Thon during the same period as the coding challenges, so it made sense to leverage both of those events as part of our Innovate LA programming.

The coding challenges and instructions were distributed via Facebook, and we also held “office hours” (complete with snacks) in one of the library’s computer labs to provide assistance with completing the challenges.  The office hours were mostly informal, with two library staff members available to walk users through completing and submitting the challenges.  One special office hours was planned, bringing in a guest professor from our Cinema and Television Arts program to help users with a web-based game making tutorial he had designed.  This partnership was very successful, and that particular office hour session had the most attendance of any we offered.  In future iterations of this event, more advance planning would enable us to partner with additional faculty members and feature tutorials they already use effectively with students in their curriculum.

Credly

We needed a way to both accept submissions documenting completion of coding challenges and a way to award digital badges.  Originally we had investigated potentially distributing digital badges through our campus learning management system, as some learning management systems like Moodle are capable of awarding digital badges.  There were a couple of problems with this – 1) we wanted the event to be open to anyone, including members of the community who wouldn’t have access to the learning management system, and 2), the digital badge capability hadn’t been activated in our campus’ instance of Moodle.   Another route we considered taking was accepting submissions for completed challenges was through the university’s Portfolium application, which has a fairly robust ability to accept submissions for completed work, but again, wouldn’t facilitate anyone from outside of the university participating. Credly seemed like an easy, efficient way to both accept submissions and award badges that could also be embedded in 3rd party applications, such as LinkedIN.  Since we hosted the competition in 2016, the capability to integrate Credly badges in Portfolium has been made available.

Credly enables you to either design your badges using Credly’s Badge Builder or upload your own badge designs.  Luckily, we had access to amazing student designers Katie Pappace, Rose Rieux, and Eva Cohen, who custom-created our badges using Adobe Illustrator.  A Credly account for the library’s Creative Media Studio was created to issue the badges, and Credly “Credits” were defined using the custom-created badge designs for each of the coding skills for which we wanted to award badges.

When a credit is designed in Credly and you enable the credit to allow others to claim the credit, you have several options.  You can require a claim code, which requires users to submit a code in order to claim the credit.  Claim codes are useful if you want to award badges not based on evidence (like file submission) but are awarding badges based on participation or attendance at an event at which you distribute the claim code to attendees.  When claim codes are required, you can also set approval of submissions to be automatic, so that anyone with a claim code automatically receives their badge.  We didn’t require a claim code, and instead required evidence to be submitted.

When requiring evidence, you can configure which what types of evidence are appropriate to receive the badge. Choices for evidence submission include a URL, a document (Word, text, or PDF), image, audio file, video file, or just an open text submission.  As users were completing code challenges, we asked for screenshots (images) as evidence of completion for most challenges.  We reviewed all submissions to ensure the submission was correct, but by requiring screenshots, we could easily see whether or not the tutorial itself had “passed” the code submission.

Awards

Credly gives the ability of easily counting the number of badges earned by each of the participants. From those numbers, we were able to determine the top badge earners and award them prizes. All participants, even the ones with a single badge, were awarded buttons of each of their earned badges. In addition to the virtual and physical badges, participants with the greatest number of earned badges were rewarded with prizes. The top five prizes were awarded with gift cards and the grand prize winner also got a 3D printed trophy designed with Tinkercad and their photo as a Lithopane incorporated into the trophy. A low stakes award ceremony was held for all contestants and winners. Top awards were high commodity and it was a good opportunity for students to meet others interested in coding and STEM.

Lessons Learned

Our first attempt at hosting coding challenges in the library taught us a few things.  First, taking a screenshot is definitely not a skill most participants started out with – the majority of initial questions we received from participants were not related to coding, but rather involved how to take a screenshot of their completed code to submit to Credly.  For future events, we’ll definitely make sure to include step-by-step instructions for taking screenshots on both PC and Mac with each challenge, or consider an alternative method of collecting submissions (e.g., copying and pasting code as a text submission into Credly).  It’s still important to not assume that copying and pasting text from a screen is a skill that all participants will have.

As noted above, planning ahead would enable us to more effectively reach out and partner with faculty, and possibly coordinate coding challenges with curriculum.  A few months before the coding challenges, we did reach out to computer science faculty, cinema and television arts faculty, and other faculty who teach curriculum involving code, but if we had reached out much earlier (e.g., the semester before) we likely would have been able to garner more faculty involvement.  Faculty schedules are so jam-packed and often set that way so far in advance, at least six months of advance notice is definitely appreciated.

Only about 10% of coding challenge participants came to coding office hours regularly, but that enabled us to provide tailored, one-on-one assistance to our novice coders.  A good portion of understanding how to get started with coding and application development is not related to syntax, but involves larger questions about how applications work:  if I wanted to make a website, where would my code go?  How does a URL figure out where my website code is?  How does a browser understand and render code?  What’s the difference between JavaScript (client-side code) and PHP (server-side code), and why are they different?  These were the types of questions we really enjoyed answering with participants during office hours.  Having fewer, more targeted office hours — where open questions are certainly encouraged, but where participants know the office hours are focused on particular topics — makes attending the office hours more worthwhile, and I think gives novice coders the language to ask questions they may not know they have.

One small bit of feedback that was personally rewarding for the authors:  at one of our office hours, a young woman came up to us and asked us if we were the planners of the coding challenges.  When we said yes, she told how excited she was (and a bit surprised) to see women involved with coding and development.  She asked us several questions about our jobs and how we got involved with careers relating to technology.  That interaction indicated to us that future outreach could potentially focus on promoting coding to women specifically, or hosting coding office hours to enable mentoring for women coders on campus, modeling (or joining up with) Women Who Code networks.

If you’re interested in hosting support for coding activities or challenges in your library, a great resource to get started with is Hour of Code, which promotes holding one-hour introductions to coding and computer science particularly during Computer Science Education Week.  Hour of Code provides tutorials, resources for hosts, promotional materials and more.  This year, Hour of Code week / Computer Science Education Week will be  December 4-10 2017, so start planning now!


Representing Online Journal Holdings in the Library Catalog

The Problem

It isn’t easy to communicate to patrons what serials they have access to and in what form (print, online). They can find these details, sure, but it’s scattered across our library’s web presence. What’s most frustrating is that we clearly have all the necessary information but the systems offer no built-in way to produce a clear display of it. My fellow librarians noted that “it’d be nice if the catalog showed our exact online holdings” and my initial response was to sigh and say “yes, that would be nice”.

To illustrate the scope of the problem, a user can search for journals in a few of our disparate systems:

  • we use a knowledgebase to track database subscriptions and which journals are included in each subscription package
  • the public catalog for our Koha ILS has records for our print journals, sometimes with a MARC 856$u 1 link to our online holdings in the knowledgebase
  • our discovery layer has both article-level results for the journals in our knowledgebase and journal-level search results for the ones in our catalog

While these systems overlap, they also serve distinct purposes, so it’s not so awful. However, there are a few downsides to our triad of serials information systems. First of all, if a patron searches the knowledgebase looking for a journal which we only have in print, our database holdings wouldn’t show that they have access to print issues. To work around this, we track our print issues both in our ILS and the knowledgebase, which duplicates work and introduces possible inconsistencies.

Secondly, someone might start their research in the discovery layer, finding a journal-level record that links out to our catalog. But it’s too much to ask a user to search the discovery layer, click into the catalog, click a link out to the knowledgebase, and only then discover our online holdings don’t include the particular volume they’re looking for. Possessing three interconnected systems creates labyrinthine search patterns and confusion amongst patrons. Simply describing the systems and their nuanced areas of overlap in this post feels like challenge, and the audience is librarians. I can imagine how our users must feel when we try to outline the differences.

The 360 XML API

Our knowledgebase is Serials Solutions 360KB. I went looking in the vendor’s help documentation for answers, which refers to an API for the product but apparently provides no information on using said API. Luckily, a quick search through GitHub projects yielded several using the API and I was able to determine its URL structure: http://{{your Serials Solution ID}}.openurl.xml.serialssolutions.com/openurlxml?version=1.0&url_ver=Z39.88-2004&issn={{the journal’s ISSN}}

It’s probably possible to search by other parameters as well, but for my purposes ISSN was ideal so I didn’t bother investigating further. If you send a request to the address above, you receive XML in response:

<ssopenurl:openURLResponse xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:ssdiag="http://xml.serialssolutions.com/ns/diagnostics/v1.0" xmlns:ssopenurl="http://xml.serialssolutions.com/ns/openurl/v1.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://xml.serialssolutions.com/ns/openurl/v1.0 http://xml.serialssolutions.com/ns/openurl/v1.0/ssopenurl.xsd http://xml.serialssolutions.com/ns/diagnostics/v1.0 http://xml.serialssolutions.com/ns/diagnostics/v1.0/diagnostics.xsd">
    <ssopenurl:version>1.0</ssopenurl:version>
    <ssopenurl:results dbDate="2017-02-15">
        <ssopenurl:result format="journal">
            <ssopenurl:citation>
                <dc:source>Croquis</dc:source>
                <ssopenurl:issn type="print">0212-5633</ssopenurl:issn>
            </ssopenurl:citation>
            <ssopenurl:linkGroups>
                <ssopenurl:linkGroup type="holding">
                    <ssopenurl:holdingData>
                        <ssopenurl:startDate>1989</ssopenurl:startDate>
                        <ssopenurl:providerId>PRVLSH</ssopenurl:providerId>
                        <ssopenurl:providerName>Library Specific Holdings</ssopenurl:providerName>
                        <ssopenurl:databaseId>ZYW</ssopenurl:databaseId>
                        <ssopenurl:databaseName>CCA Print Holdings</ssopenurl:databaseName>
                        <ssopenurl:normalizedData>
                            <ssopenurl:startDate>1989-01-01</ssopenurl:startDate>
                        </ssopenurl:normalizedData>
                    </ssopenurl:holdingData>
                    <ssopenurl:url type="source">https://library.cca.edu/</ssopenurl:url>
                    <ssopenurl:url type="journal">
                    https://library.cca.edu/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?idx=ns&q=0212-5633
                    </ssopenurl:url>
                </ssopenurl:linkGroup>
            </ssopenurl:linkGroups>
        </ssopenurl:result>
    </ssopenurl:results>
    <ssopenurl:echoedQuery timeStamp="2017-02-15T16:14:12">
        <ssopenurl:library id="EY7MR5FU9X">
            <ssopenurl:name>California College of the Arts</ssopenurl:name>
        </ssopenurl:library>
        <ssopenurl:queryString>version=1.0&url_ver=Z39.88-2004&issn=0212-5633</ssopenurl:queryString>
    </ssopenurl:echoedQuery>
</ssopenurl:openURLResponse>

If you’ve read XML before, then it’s apparent how useful the above data is. It contains a list of our “holdings” for the periodical with information about the start and end (absent here, which implies the holdings run to the present date) dates of the subscription, which database they’re in, and what URL they can be accessed at. Perfect! The XML contains precisely the information we want to display in our catalog.

Unfortunately, our catalog’s JavaScript doesn’t have permission to access the 360 XML API. Due to a browser security policy resources must explicitly say that other domains or pages are allowed to request their data. A page needs to include the Access-Control-Allow-Origin HTTP header to abide by this policy, called Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS), and the 360 API does not.

We can work around this limitation but it requires extra code on our part. While JavaScript from a web page cannot request data directly from 360, we can write a server-side script to pull data. That server-side script can then add its own CORS header which lets our catalog use it. So, in essence, we set up a proxy service that acts as a go-between for our catalog and the API that the catalog cannot use. Typically, this takes little code; the server-side script takes a parameter passed to it in the URL, sends it in a HTTP request to another server, and serves back up whatever response it receives.

Of course, it didn’t turn out to be that simple in practice. As I experimented with my scripts, I could tell that the 360 data was being received, but I couldn’t parse meaningful pieces of information out of it. It’s clearly there; I could see the full XML structure with holdings details. But neither my server-side PHP nor my client-side JavaScript could “find” XML elements like <ssopenurl:linkGroup> and <ssopenurl:normalizedData>. The text before the colon in the tag names is the namespace. Simple jQuery code like $('ssopenurl:linkGroup', xml), which can typically parse XML data, wasn’t working with these namespaced elements.

Finally, I discovered the solution by reading the PHP manual’s entry for the simplexml_load_string function: I can tell PHP how to parse namespaced XML by passing a namespace parameter to the parser function. So my function call turned into:

// parameters: 1) serials solution data since $url is the API we want to pull from
// 2) the type of object that the function should return (this is the default)
// 3) Libxml options (also the default, no special options)
// 4) (finally!) ns, the XML namespace
// 5) "True" here means ns is a prefix and not a URI
$xml= simplexml_load_string( file_get_contents($url), 'SimpleXMLElement', 0, 'ssopenurl', True );

As you can see, two of those parameters don’t even differ from the function’s defaults, but I still need to provide them to get to the “ssopenurl” namespace later. As an aside, technical digressions like these are some of the best and worst parts of my job. It’s rewarding to encounter a problem, perform research, test different approaches, and eventually solve it. But it’d also be nice, and a lot quicker, if code would just work as expected the first time around.

The Catalog

We’re lucky that Koha’s catalog both allows for JavaScript customization and has a well-structured, easy-to-modify record display. Now that I’m able to grab online holdings data from our knowledgebase, inserting into the catalog is trivial. If you wanted to do the same with a different library catalog, the only changes come in the JavaScript that finds ISSN information in a record and then inserts the retrieved holdings information into the display. The complete outline of the data flow from catalog to KB and back looks like:

  • my JavaScript looks for an ISSN on the record’s display page
  • if there’s an ISSN, it sends the ISSN to my proxy script
  • the proxy script adds a few parameters & asks for information from the 360 XML API
  • the 360 XML API returns XML, which my proxy script parses into JSON and sends to the catalog
  • the catalog JavaScript receives the JSON and parses holdings information into formatted HTML like “Online resources: 1992 to present in DOAJ
  • the JS inserts the formatted text into the record’s “online resources” section, creating that section if it doesn’t already exist

Is there a better way to do this? Almost certainly. The six steps above should give you a sense of how convoluted the process is, hacking around a few limitations. Still, the outcome is positive: we stopped updating our print holdings in our knowledgebase and our users have more information at their fingertips. It obviates the final step in the protracted “discovery layer to catalog” search described in the opening of this post.

Our next steps are obvious, too: we should aim to get this information into the discovery layer’s search results for our journals. The general frame of this project would be the same; we already know how to get the data from the API. Much like working with a different library catalog, the only edits are in parsing ISSNs from discovery layer search results and finding a spot in the HTML to insert the holdings data. Finally, we can also remove the redundant and less useful 856$u links from our periodical MARC records now.

The Scripts

These are highly specific to our catalog, but may be of general use to others who want to see how the pieces work together:

Notes

  1. For those unfamiliar, 856 is the MARC field for URLs, whether they URL represents the actual resource being described or something supplementary. It’s pretty common for print journals to also have 856 fields for their online counterparts.

Creating an OAI-PMH Feed From Your Website

Libraries who use a flexible content management system such as Drupal or WordPress for their library website and/or resource discovery have a challenge in ensuring that their data is accessible to the rest of the library world. Whether making metadata useable by other libraries or portals such as DPLA, or harvesting content in a discovery layer, there are some additional steps libraries need to take to make this happen. While there are a number of ways to accomplish this, the most straightforward is to create an OAI-PMH feed. OAI-PMH stands for Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, and is a well-supported and understood protocol in many metadata management systems. There’s a tutorial available to understand the details you might want to know, and the Open Archives Initiative has detailed documentation.

Content management tools designed specifically for library and archives usage, such as LibGuides and Omeka, have a built in OAI-PMH feed, and generally all you need to do is find the base URL and plug it in. (For instance, here is what a LibGuides OAI feed looks like). In this post I’ll look at what options are available for Drupal and WordPress to create the feed and become a data provider.

WordPress

This is short, since there aren’t that many options. If you use WordPress for your library website you will have to experiment, as there is nothing well-supported. Lincoln University in New Zealand has created a script that converts a WordPress RSS feed to a minimal OAI feed. This requires editing a PHP file to include your RSS feed URL, and uploading to a server. I admit that I have been unsuccessful at testing this, but Lincoln University has a working example, and uses this to harvest their WordPress library website into Primo.

Drupal

If you use Drupal, you will need to first install a module called Views OAI-PMH. What this does is create a Drupal view formatted as an OAI-PMH data provider feed. Those familiar with Drupal know that you can use the Views module to present content in a variety of ways. For instance, you can include certain fields from certain content types in a list or chart that allows you to reuse content rather than recreating it. This is no different, only the formatting is an OAI-PMH compliant XML structure. Rather than placing the view in a Drupal page or block, you create a separate page. This page becomes your base URL to provide to others or reuse in whatever way you need.

The Views OAI-PMH module isn’t the most obvious module to set up, so here are the basic steps you need to follow. First, enable and set permissions as usual. You will also want to refresh your caches (I had trouble until I did this). You’ll discover that unlike other modules the documentation and configuration is not in the interface, but in the README file, so you will need to open that out of the module directory to get the configuration instructions.

To create your OAI-PMH view you have two choices. You can add it to a view that is already created, or create a new one. The module will create an example view called Biblio OAI-PMH (based on an earlier Biblio module used for creating bibliographic metadata). You can just edit this to create your OAI feed. Alternatively, if you have a view that already exists with all the data you want to include, you can add an OAI-PMH display as an additional display. You’ll have to create a path for your view that will make it accessible via a URL.

The details screen for the OAI-PMH display.

The Views OAI-PMH module only supports Dublin Core at this time. If you are using Drupal for bibliographic metadata of some kind, mapping the fields is a fairly straightforward process. However, choosing the Dublin Core mappings for data that is not bibliographic by nature requires some creativity and thought about where the data will end up. When I was setting this up I was trying to harvest most of the library website into our discovery layer, so I knew how the discovery layer parsed OAI DC and could choose fields accordingly.

After adding fields to the view (just as you normally would in creating a view), you will need to select settings for the OAI view to select the Dublin Core element name for each content field.

You can then map each element to the appropriate Dublin Core field. The example from my site includes some general metadata that appears on all content (such as Title), and some that only appears in specific content types. For instance, Collection Description only appears on digital collection content types. I did not choose to include the body content for any page on the site, since most of those pages contain a lot of scripts or other code that wasn’t useful to harvest into the discovery layer. Explanatory content such as the description of a digital collection or a database was more useful to display in the discovery layer, and exists only in special fields for those content types on my Drupal site, so we could pull those out and display those.

In the end, I have a feed that looks like this. Regular pages end up with very basic metadata in the feed:

<metadata>
<oai_dc:dc xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/  http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd">
<dc:title>Hours</dc:title>
<dc:identifier>http://libraries.luc.edu/hours</dc:identifier><dc:creator>Loyola University Libraries</dc:creator></oai_dc:dc>
</metadata>

Whereas databases get more information pulled in. Note that there are two identifiers, one for the database URL, and one for the database description link. We will make these both available, but may choose one to use only one in the discovery layer and hide the other one.

<metadata>
<oai_dc:dc xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/  http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd">
<dc:title>Annual Bibliography of English Language and Literature</dc:title>
<dc:identifier>http://flagship.luc.edu/login?url=http://collections.chadwyck.com/home/home_abell.jsp</dc:identifier>
<dc:subject>Modern Languages</dc:subject>
<dc:type>Index/Database</dc:type>
<dc:identifier>http://libraries.luc.edu/annual-bibliography-english-language-and-literature</dc:identifier>
<dc:creator>Loyola University Libraries</dc:creator>
</oai_dc:dc>
</metadata>

When someone does a search in the discovery layer for something on the library website, the result shows the page right in the interface. We are still doing usability tests on this right now, but expect to move it into production soon.

Conclusion

I’ve just touched on two content management systems, but there are many more out there. Do you create OAI-PMH feeds of your data? What do you do with them? Share your examples in the comments.


Data Refuge and the Role of Libraries

Society is always changing. For some, the change can seem slow and frustrating, while others may feel as though the change occurred in a blink of an eye. What is this change that I speak of? It can be anything…civil rights, autonomous cars, or national leaders. One change that no one ever seems particularly prepared for, however, is when a website link becomes broken. One day, you could click a link and get to a site and the next day you get a 404 error. Sometimes this occurs because a site was migrated to a new server and the link was not redirected. Sometimes this occurs because the owner ceased to maintain the site. And sometimes, this occurs for less benign reasons.

Information access via the Internet is an activity that many (but not all) of us do everyday, in sometimes unconscious fashion: checking the weather, reading email, receiving news alerts. We also use the Internet to make datasets and other sources of information widely available. Individuals, universities, corporations, and governments share data and information in this way. In the Obama administration, the Open Government Initiative led to the development of Project Open Data and data.gov. Federal agencies started looking at ways to make information sharing easier, especially in areas where the data are unique.

One area of unique data is in climate science. Since climate data is captured on a specific day, time, and under certain conditions, it can never be truly reproduced. It will never be January XX, 2017 again. With these constraints, climate data can be thought of as fragile. The copies that we have are the only records that we have. Much of our nation’s climate data has been captured by research groups at institutes, universities, and government labs and agencies. During the election, much of the rhetoric from Donald Trump was rooted in the belief that climate change is a hoax. Upon his election, Trump tapped Scott Pruitt, who has fought much of the EPA’s attempts to regulate pollution, to lead the EPA. This, along with other messages from the new administration, has raised alarms within the scientific community that the United States may repeat the actions of the Harper administration in Canada, which literally threw away thousands of items from federal libraries that were deemed outside scope, through a process that was criticized as not transparent.

In an effort to safeguard and preserve this data, the Penn Program of Environmental Humanities (PPEH) helped organize a collaborative project called Data Refuge. This project requires the expertise of scientists, librarians, archivists, and programmers to organize, document, and back-up data that is distributed across federal agencies’ websites. Maintaining the integrity of the data, while ensuring the re-usability of it, are paramount concerns and areas where librarians and archivists must work hand in glove with the programmers (sometimes one and the same) who are writing the code to pull, duplicate, and push content. Wired magazine recently covered one of the Data Refuge events and detailed the way that the group worked together, while much of the process is driven by individual actions.

In order to capture as much of this data as possible, the Data Refuge project relies on groups of people organizing around this topic across the country. The PPEH site details the requirements to host a successful DataRescue event and has a Toolkit to help promote and document the event. There is also a survey that you can use to nominate climate or environmental data to be part of the Data Refuge. Not in a position to organize an event? Don’t like people? You can also work on your own! An interesting observation from the work on your own page is the option to nominate any “downloadable data that is vulnerable and valuable.” This means that Internet Archive and the End of Term Harvest Team (a project to preserve government websites from the Obama administration) is interested in any data that you have reason to believe may be in jeopardy under the current administration.

A quick note about politics. Politics are messy and it can seem odd that people are organizing in this way, when administrations change every four or eight years and, when there is a party change in the presidency, it is almost a certainty that there will be major departures in policy and prioritizations from administration to administration. What is important to recognize is that our data holdings are increasingly solely digital, and therefore fragile. The positions on issues like climate, environment, civil rights, and many, many others are so diametrically opposite from the Obama to Trump offices, that we – the public – have no assurances that the data will be retained or made widely available for sharing. This administration speaks of “alternative facts” and “disagree[ing] with the facts” and this makes people charged with preserving facts wary.

Many questions about the sustainability and longevity of the project remain. Will End of Term or Data Refuge be able to/need to expand the scope of these DataRescue efforts? How much resourcing can people donate to these events? What is the role of institutions in these efforts? This is a fantastic way for libraries to build partnerships with entities across campus and across a community, but some may view the political nature of these actions as incongruous with the library mission.

I would argue that policies and political actions are not inert abstractions. There is a difference between promoting a political party and calling attention to policies that are in conflict with human rights and freedom to information. Loathe as I am to make this comparison, would anyone truly claim that burning books is protected political speech, and that opposing such burning is “playing politics?” Yet, these were the actions of a political party – in living memory – hosted at university towns across Germany. Considering the initial attempt to silence the USDA and the temporary freeze on the EPA, libraries should strongly support the efforts of PPEH, Data Refuge, End of Term, and concerned citizens across the country.

 


#1Lib1Ref Edit (2017)

I participated in the “#1Lib1Ref” campaign again this year, recording my experience and talking through why I think it’s important.


Online Privacy in Post-Election America

A commitment to protecting the privacy of our patrons is enshrined in the ALA Code of Ethics. While that has always been an important aspect of librarianship, it’s become even more pivotal in an information age where privacy is far more nuanced and difficult to achieve. Given the rhetoric of the election season, and statements made by our President-Elect as well as his Cabinet nominees 1, the American surveillance state has become even more disconcerting. As librarians, we have an obligation to empower our communities with the knowledge they need to secure their own personal information. This post will cover, at a high level, a few areas where librarians of various types can assist patrons.

The Tools

Given that so much information is exchanged online these days, librarians are in a unique position to educate patrons about the Internet. We spend so much time either building web services or utilizing them, it’s highly likely that a librarian knows more about the web than your average citizen. As such, we can relate some of the powerful pieces of software and services that aid in protecting one’s online presence. To name just a handful that almost everyone could benefit from knowing:

DuckDuckGo is a privacy-aware search engine which explicitly does not track individual users. While it is a for-profit endeavor earning money through ad revenue, its policies set it apart from major competitors such as Google and Bing.

TorBrowser is a web browser utilizing The Onion Router protocol which obfuscates the user’s IP address, essentially masking their online activities behind a web of redirects. The Tor network is run by volunteers and TorBrowser is open source software developed by a non-profit organization.

HTTPS is the encrypted version of HTTP, the data transfer protocol that powers the internet. HTTPS sites are less likely to have their traffic intercepted or surveilled. Tools like HTTPS Everywhere help one to find HTTPS versions of sites without too much trouble.

Two-factor authentication is available for many apps and web services. It decreases the possibility that a third-party can access your account by providing an additional layer of protection beyond your password, e.g. through a code sent to your phone.

Signal is an open source private messaging app which uses end-to-end encryption, think of it as HTTPS for your text messages. Signal is made by Open Whisper Systems which, like the Tor Foundation, is a non-profit.

These are just a few major tools in different areas, all of which are worth knowing about. Many have usability trade-offs but switching to just one or two is enough to substantially improve an individual’s privacy.

Privacy Workshops

Merely knowing about particular pieces of software is not enough to secure one’s communications. Tor perhaps says it best in their “Tips on Staying Anonymous“:

Tor is NOT all you need to browse anonymously! You may need to change some of your browsing habits to ensure your identity stays safe.

A laundry list of web browsers, extensions, and apps doesn’t do much by itself. A person’s behavior is still the largest factor in how private their information is. One can visit a secure HTTPS site but still use a password that’s trivial to crack; one can use the “incognito” or “privacy” mode of a browser but still be tracked by their IP address. Online privacy is an immensely complicated and difficult subject which requires knowledge of practices as well tools. As such, libraries can offer workshops that teach both at once. Most libraries teach skills-based workshops, whether they’re on using a citation manager or how to evaluate information sources for credibility. Adding privacy skills is a natural extension of work we already do. Workshops can fit into particular classes—whether they’re history, computer science, or ethics—or be extra-curricular. Look for sympathetic partners on campus, such as student groups or concerned faculty, to see if you can collaborate or at least find an avenue for advertising your events.

Does your library not have anyone qualified or willing to teach a privacy workshop? Consider contacting an outside expert. The Library Freedom Project immediately comes to mind as a wonderful resource offering: a privacy toolkit for librarians, an online class, “train the trainers” type events, and community-focused workshops.2 Academic librarians may also have access to local computer security experts, whether they’re computer science instructors or particularly savvy students, who would be willing to lend their expertise. My one caution would be that just because someone is a subject expert doesn’t mean they’re equipped to effectively lead a workshop, and that working with an expert to ensure an event is tailored to your community will be more successful than simply outsourcing the entire task.

Patron Data

Depending on your position at your library, this final section might either be the most or least obvious thing to be done: control access to data about your patrons. If you’re an instruction or reference librarian, I imagine workshops were the first thing on your mind. If you’re a systems librarian such as myself, you may have thought of technologies like HTTPS or considered data security measures. This section will be longer not because it’s more important, but because these are topics I think about often as they directly relate to my job responsibilities.

Patron data is tricky. I’ll be the first to admit that my library collects quite a bit of data about patrons, a rather small amount of which contains personally identifying information. Data is extremely useful both in fine-tuning our services to meet community needs as well as in demonstrating our value to stakeholders like the college administration. Still, there is good reason to review data practices and web services to see if anything can be improved. Here’s a brief list of heuristics to use:

Are your websites using HTTPS? Secure sites, especially for one’s with patron accounts that hold sensitive information, help prevent data from being intercepted by third parties. I fully realize this is actually more difficult than it appears; our previous ILS offered HTTPS but only as a paid add-on which we couldn’t afford. If a vendor is the holdup here, pester them relentlessly until progress is made. I’ve found that most vendors understand that HTTPS is important, it’s just further down in their development priorities. Making a fuss can change that.

Is personal information being unnecessarily collected? What’s “necessary” is subjective, certainly. A good measure is looking at when the last time personal information was actually used in any substantive manner. If you’re tracking the names of students who ask reference questions, have you ever actually needed them for follow-ups? Could an anonymized ID be used instead? Could names be deleted after a certain amount of time has passed? Which brings us to…

Where personal information is collected, do retention policies exist? E.g. if you’re doing website user studies that record someone’s name, likeness, or voice, do you eventually delete the files? This goes for paper files as well, which can be reviewed and then shredded if deemed unnecessary. Retention policies are beneficial in a few ways. They not only prevent old data from leaking into the wrong hands, they often help with organization and “spring cleaning” tasks. I try to review my hard drive periodically for random files I’ve been sent by faculty or students which can be cleaned out.

Can patrons be empowered with options regarding their own data? Opt-in policies regarding data retention are desirable because they allow a library to collect information that might prove valuable while also giving people the ability to limit their vulnerabilities. Catalog reading lists are the quintessential example: some patrons find these helpful as a tool to review what they’ve read, while others would prefer to obscure their checkout history. It should go without saying that these options existing without any surrounding education is rather useless. Patrons need to know what’s at stake and how to use the systems at their disposal; the setting does nothing by itself. While optional workshops typically only touch a fragment of the overall student population, perhaps in-browser tips and suggestions can be presented to prompt our users to consider about the ramifications of their account’s configuration.

Relevance Ranking

Every so often, an event will happen which foregrounds the continued relevance of our profession. The most recent American election was an unmitigated disaster in terms of information literacy 3, but it also presents an opportunity for us to redouble our efforts where they are needed. Like the terrifying revelations of Edward Snowden, we are reminded that we serve communities that are constantly at risk of oppression, surveillance, and strife. As information professionals, we should strive to take on the challenge of protecting our patrons, and much of that protection occurs online. We can choose to be paralyzed by distress when faced with the state of affairs in our country, or to be challenged to rise to the occasion.

Notes

  1. To name a few examples, incoming CIA chief Mike Pompeo supports NSA bulk data collection and President-Elect Trump has been ambiguous as to whether he supports the idea of a registry or database for Muslim Americans.
  2. Library Freedom Director Alison Macrina has an excellent running Twitter thread on privacy topics which is worth consulting whether you’re an expert or novice.
  3. To note but two examples, the President-Elect persistently made false statements during his campaign and “fake news” appeared as a distinct phenomenon shortly after the election.

Finding the Right Words in Post-Election Libraries and Higher Ed

This year’s election result has presented a huge challenge to all of us who work in higher education and libraries. Usually, libraries, universities, and colleges do not comment on presidential election result and we refrain from talking about politics at work. But these are not usual times that we are living in.

A black female student was shoved off the sidewalk and called the ‘N’ word at Baylor University. The Ku Klux Klan is openly holding a rally. West Virginia officials publicly made a racist comment about the first lady. Steve Bannon’s prospective appointment as the chief strategist and senior counsel to the new President is being praised by white nationalist leaders and fiercely opposed by civil rights groups at the same time. Bannon is someone who calls for an ethno-state, openly calls Martin Luther King a fraud, and laments white dispossession and the deconstruction of occidental civilization. There are people drawing a swastika at a park. The ‘Whites only’ and ‘Colored’ signs were put up over water fountains in a Florida school. A Muslim student was threatened with a lighter. Asian-American women are being assaulted. Hostile acts targeting minority students are taking place on college campuses.

Libraries and educational institutions exist because we value knowledge and science. Knowledge and science do not discriminate. They grow across all different races, ethnicities, religions, nationalities, sexual identities, and disabilities. Libraries and educational institutions exist to enable and empower people to freely explore, investigate, and harness different ideas and thoughts. They support, serve, and belong to ‘all’ who seek knowledge. No matter how naive it may sound, they are essential to the betterment of human lives, and they do so by creating strength from all our differences, not likeness. This is why diversity, equity, inclusion are non-negotiable and irrevocable values in libraries and educational institutions.

How do we reconcile these values with the president-elect who openly dismissed and expressed hostility towards them? His campaign made remarks and promises that can be interpreted as nothing but the most blatant expressions of racism, sexism, intolerance, bigotry, harassment, and violence. What will we do to address the concerns of our students, staff, and faculty about their physical safety on campus due to their differences in race, ethnicity, religion, nationality, gender, and sexual identity? How do we assure them that we will continue to uphold these values and support everyone regardless of what they look like, how they identify their gender, what their faiths are, what disabilities they may have, who they love, where they come from, what languages they speak, or where they live? How?

We say it. Explicitly. Clearly. And repeatedly.

If you think that your organization is already very much pro-diversity that there is no need to confirm or reaffirm diversity, you can’t be farther from the everyday life minorities experience. Sometimes, saying isn’t much. But right now, saying it out loud can mean everything. If you support those who belong to minority groups but don’t say it out loud, how would they know it? Right now, nothing is obvious other than there is a lot of hate and violence towards minorities.

The entire week after the election, I agonized about what to say to my small team of IT people whom I supervise at work. As a manager, I felt that it was my responsibility to address the anxiety and uncertainty that some of my staff – particularly those in minority groups – would be experiencing due to the election result. I also needed to ensure that whatever dialogue takes place regarding the differences of opinions between those who were pleased and those who were distressed with the election result, those dialogues remain civil and respectful.

Crafting an appropriate message was much more challenging than I anticipated. I felt very strongly about the need to re-affirm the unwavering support and commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion particularly in relation to libraries and higher education, no matter how obvious it may seem. I also felt the need to establish (within the bounds of my limited authority) that we will continue to respect, value, and celebrate diversity in interacting with library users as well as other library and university staff members. Employees are held to the standard expectations of their institutions, such as diversity, equity, inclusion, tolerance, civil dialogue, and no harassment or violence towards minorities, even if their private opinions conflict with them. At the same time, I wanted to strike a measured tone and neither scare nor upset anyone, whichever side they were on in the election. As a manager, I have to acknowledge that everyone is entitled to their private opinions as long as they do not harm others.

I suspect that many of us – either a manager or not – want to say something similar about the election result. Not so much about who was and should have been as about what we are going to do now in the face of these public incidences of anger, hatred, harassment, violence, and bigotry directed at minority groups, which are coming out at an alarming pace because it affects all of us, not just minorities.

Finding the right words, however, is difficult. You have to carefully consider your role, audience, and the message you want to convey. The official public statement from a university president is going to take a tone vastly different from an informal private message a supervisor sends out to a few members of his or her team. A library director’s message to library patrons assuring the continued service for all groups of users with no discrimination will likely to be quite different from the one she sends to her library staff to assuage their anxiety and fear.

For such difficulty not to delay and stop us from what we have to and want to say to everyone we work with and care for, I am sharing the short message that I sent out to my team last Friday, 3 days after the election. (N.B. ‘CATS’ stands for ‘Computing and Technology Services’ and UMB refers to ‘University of Maryland, Baltimore.’) This is a customized message to address my own team. I am sharing this as a potential template for you to craft your own message. I would like to see more messages that reaffirm diversity, equity, and inclusion as non-negotiable values, explicitly state that we will not step backwards, and make a commitment to continued unwavering support for them.

Dear CATS,

This year’s close and divisive election left a certain level of anxiety and uncertainty in many of us. I am sure that we will hear from President Perman and the university leadership soon.

In the meantime, I want to remind you of something I believe to be very important. We are all here – just as we have been all along – to provide the most excellent service to our users regardless of what they look like, what their faiths are, where they come from, what languages they speak, where they live, and who they love. A library is a powerful place where people transform themselves through learning, critical thinking, and reflection. A library’s doors have been kept open to anyone who wants to freely explore the world of ideas and pursue knowledge. Libraries are here to empower people to create a better future. A library is a place for mutual education through respectful and open-minded dialogues. And, we, the library staff and faculty, make that happen. We get to make sure that people’s ethnicity, race, gender, disability, socio-economic backgrounds, political views, or religious beliefs do not become an obstacle to that pursuit. We have a truly awesome responsibility. And I don’t have to tell you how vital our role is as a CATS member in our library’s fulfilling that responsibility.

Whichever side we stood on in this election, let’s not forget to treat each other with respect and dignity. Let’s use this as an opportunity to renew our commitment to diversity, one of the UMB’s core values. Inclusive excellence is one of the themes of the UMB 2017-2021 Strategic Plan. Each and every one of us has a contribution to make because we are stronger for our differences.

We have much work ahead of us! I am out today, but expect lots of donuts Monday.

Have a great weekend,
Bohyun

 

Monday, I brought in donuts of many different kinds and told everyone they were ‘diversity donuts.’ Try it. I believe it was successful in easing some stress and tension that was palpable in my team after the election.

Photo from Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vnysia/4598569232

Photo from Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vnysia/4598569232

Before crafting your own message, I recommend re-reading your institution’s core values, mission and vision statements, and the most recent strategic plan. Most universities, colleges, and libraries include diversity, equity, inclusion, or something equivalent to these somewhere. Also review all public statements or internal messages that came from your institution that reaffirms diversity, equity, and inclusion. You can easily incorporate those into your own message. Make sure to clearly state your (and your institution’s) continued commitment to and unwavering support for diversity and inclusion and explicitly oppose bigotry, intolerance, harassment, and acts of violence. Encourage civil discourse and mutual respect. It is very important to reaffirm the values of diversity, equity, and inclusion ‘before’ listing any resources and help that employees or students may seek in case of harassment or assault. Without the assurance from the institution that it indeed upholds those values and will firmly stand by them, those resources and help mean little.

Below I have also listed messages, notes, and statements sent out by library directors, managers, librarians, and university presidents that reaffirm the full support for and commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion. I hope to see more of these come out. If you have already received or sent out such a message, I invite you to share in the comments. If you have not, I suggest doing so as soon as possible. Send out a message if you are in a position where doing so is appropriate. Don’t forget to ask for a message addressing those values if you have not received any from your organization.


2016: The Year Open Access Broke?

It’s Open Access Week, which for scholarly communications librarians and institutional repository managers is one of the big events of the year to reflect on our work and educate others. Over the years, it has become less necessary to explain what open access is. Rather, everyone seems to have a perception of open access and an opinion about it. But those perceptions and opinions may not be based on the original tenets of the open access movement. The commercialization of open access means that it may now seem too expensive to pursue for individuals to publish open access, and too complicated for institutions to attempt without buying a product.

In some ways, the open access movement is analogous to punk music–a movement that grew out of protest and DIY sensibilities, but was quickly coopted as soon as it became financially successful. While it was never free or easy to make work open access, changes in the market recently might make it feel even more expensive and complicated. Those who want to continue to build open access repositories and promote open access need to understand where their institution fits in the larger picture, the motivations of researchers and administration, and be able to put the right solutions together to avoid serious missteps that will set back the open access movement.

Like many exciting new ideas, open access is partially a victim of its own success. Heather Morrison has kept  for the past ten years a tally of the dramatic growth of open access in an on-going series. Her post for this year’s Open Access Week is the source for the statistics in this paragraph. Open access content makes up a sizeable portion of online content, and therefore is more of a market force. BASE now includes 100 million articles. Directory of Open Access Journals, even after the stricter inclusion process, has an 11% growth in article level searching with around 500,000 items. There are well over a billion items with a Creative Commons license. These numbers are staggering, and give a picture of how overwhelming the amount of content available all told is, much less open access. But it also means that almost everyone doing academic research will have benefited from open access content. Not everyone who has used open access (or Creative Commons licensed) content will know what it is, but as it permeates more of the web it becomes more and more relevant. It also becomes much harder to manage, and dealing with that complexity requires new solutions–which may bring new areas of profit.

An example of this new type of service is 1Science, which launched a year ago. This is a service that helps libraries manage their open access collections, both in terms of understanding what is available in their subscribed collections as well as their faculty output. 1Science grew out of longer term research projects around emerging bibliometrics, started by Eric Archambault, and according to their About Us page started as a way to improve findability of open access content, and grew into a suite of tools that analyzes collections for open access content availability. The market is now there for this to be a service that libraries are interested in purchasing. Similar moves happened with alternative metrics in the last few years as well (for instance, Plum Analytics).

But the big story for commercial open access in 2016 was Elsevier. Elsevier already had a large stable of open access author-pays journals, with fees of up to $5000. That is the traditional way that large commercial publishers have participated in open access. But Elsevier has made several moves in 2016 that are changing the face of open access. They acquired SSRN in May, which built on their acquisition of Mendeley in 2013, and hints at a longer term strategy for combining a content platform and social citation network that potentially could form a new type of open access product that could be marketed to libraries. Their move into different business models for open access is also illustrated in their controversial partnership with the University of Florida. This uses an API to harvest content from ScienceDirect published by UF researchers, but will not provide access to those without subscriptions except to certain accepted manuscripts, and grew out of a recognition that UF researchers published heavily in Elsevier journals and that working directly with Elsevier would allow them to get a large dataset of their researchers’ content and funder compliance status more easily. 1 There is a lot to unpack in this partnership, but the fact that it can even take place shows that open access–particularly funder compliance for open access versions–is something about which university administration outside the library in the Office of Research Services is taking note. Such a partnership serves certain institutional needs, but it does not create an open access repository, and in most ways serves the needs of the publisher in driving content to their platform (though UF did get a mention of interlibrary loan into the process rather than just a paywall). It also removes incentives for UF faculty to publish in non-Elsevier journals, since their content in those journals will become even easier to find, and there will be no need to look elsewhere for open access grant compliance. Either way, this type of move takes the control of open access out of the hands of libraries, just as so many previous deals with commercial enterprises have done.

As I said in the beginning of this piece, more and more people already know about and benefit from open access, but all those people have different motivations. I break those into three categories, and which administrative unit I think is most likely to care about that aspect of open access:

  • Open access is about the justice of wider access to academic content or getting back at the big publishers for exploitative practices. These people aren’t going to be that interested in a commercial open access solution, except inasmuch as it allows more access for a lower cost–for instance, a hosted institutional repository that doesn’t require institutional investment in developers. This group may include librarians and individual researchers.
  • Open access is about following the rules for a grant-funded project since so many of those require open access versions of articles. Such requirements lead to an increase in author-pays open access, since publishers can command a higher fee that can be part of the grant award or subsidized by an institution. Repositories to serve these requirements and to address these needs are in progress but still murky to many. This group may include the Office of Research Services or Office of Institutional Research.
  • “Open access” is synonymous with putting articles or article citations online to create a portfolio for reputation-building purposes. This last group is going to find something like that UF/Elsevier partnership to be a great situation, since they may not be aware of how many people cannot actually read the published articles. This last group may include administrators concerned with building the institution’s reputation.

For librarians who fall into the first category but are sensitive to the needs of everyone in each category, it’s important to select the right balance of solutions to meet everyone’s needs but still maintain the integrity of the open access repository. That said, this is not easy. Meeting these variety of needs is exactly why some of these new products are entering the market, and it may seem easier to go with one of them even if it’s not exactly the right long-term solution. I see this as an important continuing challenge facing librarians who believe in open access, and have to underpin future repository and outreach strategies.

  1. Russell, Judith C.; Wise, Alicia; Dinsmore, Chelsea S.; Spears, Laura I.; Phillips, Robert V.; and Taylor, Laurie (2016) “Academic Library and Publisher Collaboration: Utilizing an Institutional Repository to Maximize the Visibility and Impact of Articles by University Authors,” Collaborative Librarianship: Vol. 8: Iss. 2, Article 4.

    Available at: http://digitalcommons.du.edu/collaborativelibrarianship/vol8/iss2/4.


Making a Basic LTI (Learning Tools Intoperability) App

Learning Tools Interoperability, or LTI, is an open standard maintained by the IMS Global Learning Consortium used to build external tools or plugins for Learning Management Systems (LMS).  A common use case of an LTI is to build an application that can be accessed from within the LMS to perform searches and import resources into a course.  For example, the Wikipedia LTI application enables instructors to search Wikipedia and embed links to articles directly into their courses.  Academic libraries frequently struggle to integrate library resources in learning management systems, so LTI is an obvious standard to embrace as a potential way to make library resources more accessible.  However, when I began researching how I could begin creating an LTI app, I found it very difficult to find examples of existing app code and resources to get started.  You can’t just create any old web application and have that be ‘consumable’ by a learning management system in an LTI-compliant way.  In this post, I’ll outline some of the resources I found useful to get started building your own LTI app.

LTI General Architecture

These are the basic components of an LTI application:

  • The LTI Tool Provider (TP):  This is your application.  The tool provider is the resource the user sees when they access your application from within the learning management system.  The Wikipedia LTI app linked above is an example of a tool provider.
  • The LTI Tool Consumer (TC): This is the learning management system (e.g., Blackboard, Moodle, Canvas) from which the user accesses your tool provider application.
  • The LTI Launch:  When a user accesses your tool provider from the tool consumer, this is called “launching” the LTI application.  Parameters are passed from the tool consumer to your tool provider, including authorization parameters that ensure the user is permitted to access your application, as well as information about the user’s identity, roles within the tool consumer, and the type of request the user is sending (e.g., a “content item message” is sent to your tool to indicate the user is expecting to import a link back to the tool consumer).
  • OAuth:  LTI applications use OAuth signatures for validating messages between the Tool Consumer and the Tool provider.  LTI applications require that the Tool Consumer and the Tool Consumer have each configured a shared key and secret, which is used to build an OAuth “Access Token” to enable communication between the two systems.1

An additional tip for developing LTI apps:  Sign up for a free instructor account for the Canvas learning management system. Canvas accounts hosted on the Instructure website enable you to add a custom LTI tool to your course (once it’s hosted on a web server, of course) and also enables you to quickly experiment with some existing LTI applications (such as the Khan Academy and Merlot LTI apps) to explore possible functionality you might want to include in your application.  This way, you can see what an instructor or student would see when they interact with your tool provider through an LMS.

Building your first “Hello, World” LTI app (with some help from Harvard)

When I first started looking into LTI, I found it really difficult to find a full (but basic) LTI application to get an overall picture of how LTI apps work – there’s lots of LTI class libraries out there, but I wanted an example of how all the pieces of an LTI app fit together. After some fruitless Googling and GitHub searches, I finally stumbled upon this Harvard LTI workshop on LTI apps that really helped me understand how LTI applications work.  The repository includes a full working LTI application that you can simply “plug in” some basic values to create a fully working LTI application, complete with OAuth authentication.

First, be sure to look at the included presentation in the repository, which is a rare example of a set of presentation slides that is 100% understandable out of context, to get a general introduction to the LTI standard and what it attempts to achieve.  You’ll also want to read through the step-by-step LTI blog tutorial that will get you set up with your first “Hello,World!” LTI application, complete with valid OAuth-signed requests.2

I found it especially useful that the Harvard LTI workshop repository includes a pseudo tool consumer (which mimics how the LMS would interact with your tool) that you can use during development on localhost.  Once you follow the steps of the tutorial to build your basic “Hello, World!” single-page LTI application, you can plug the local URL of that into the tool consumer page and check out how the parameters are passed from the tool consumer to the tool provider.   You can also examine the built-in basic LTI php class library that is included, as well as the basic OAuth functionality to see how the OAuth Access Token is constructed.

Use Case:  A WorldCat Discovery API Search and Retrieval Tool for LMS

My particular use case for exploring LTI involves building a search box that would enable a faculty user to add a link to a resource from the WorldCat Discovery system.  If your library subscribed to FirstSearch or you are a WorldShare Management System (WMS) customer you now likely have access to WorldCat Discovery; but the framework I’m using to build my app would work for any Discovery layer with an API (e.g., Summon, Primo, etc.).

Searching and retrieving via LTI is straightforward.  First, using the Harvard LTI workshop LTI application, I created a /lib directory to host the WorldCat Discovery PHP library published by OCLC cloned from GitHub.  I installed the library using Composer as described in the GitHub repository readme instructions.   I created a very simple search form and response page that enables a user to enter a query and then retrieve results from the WorldCat Discovery API based on that query. Then, I set up my “tool.php” application to display the search form and POST the query to the the simple response page:

tool.php:

<?php
error_reporting(E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE);
ini_set("display_errors", 1);
require_once 'ims-blti/blti.php';
$lti = new BLTI("secret", false, false);

session_start();
header('Content-Type: text/html;charset=utf-8');
?>

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
    <title>Building Tools with the Learning Tools Operability Specification</title>
  </head
  <body>
  <?php 
    if ($lti->valid) {
  ?>
    <h2>Search WorldCat Discovery</h2>
      <form action="results.php" method="post" encType="application/x-www-form-urlencoded">
        Search: <input type="text" name="query" id="query" />
         <?php
    foreach($_POST as $key => $value) {
      echo "<input type=\"hidden\" name=\"" .$key .  "\" value=\"" . $value . "\" />\n";
    }
  ?>
      <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" />
      </form>
    <pre>
    </pre>
    <?php
      } else {
    ?>
      <h2>This was not a valid LTI launch</h2>
      <p>Error message: <?= $lti->message ?></p>
    <?php
      }
    ?>
    </body>
</html>

results.php:

<?php
require_once('../lib/worldcat-discovery-php/vendor/autoload.php');

   use OCLC\Auth\WSKey;
   use OCLC\Auth\AccessToken;
   use WorldCat\Discovery\Bib;

$key = 'somekey';
$secret = 'somesecret';
$options = array('services' => array('WorldCatDiscoveryAPI', 'refresh_token'));
$wskey = new WSKey($key, $secret, $options);
$accessToken = $wskey->getAccessTokenWithClientCredentials('123', '123');

$query = $_POST["query"];
$options = array(
  'useFRBRGrouping' => 'true',
  'sortBy' => 'library_plus_relevance',
  'itemsPerPage' => 25,
  );
$bib = Bib::Search($query, $accessToken, $options);

if (is_a($bib, 'WorldCat\Discovery\Error')) {
   echo $bib->getErrorCode();
   echo $bib->getErrorMessage();
} else {
    foreach ($bib->getSearchResults() as $result){
      echo '<li><a href="'. $result . '">' . $result->getName()->getValue() .' (';
      echo ($result->getDatePublished() ?  '' . $result->getDatePublished()->getValue()  : '') . ')</a></li>';
   }
}

?>

 

The application I’ve created so far is mostly a proof of concept, and I have a few essential tasks to finish the application – first, I need to re-write the URLs to point to a specific WorldCat Discovery instance (pointing to generic WorldCat.org isn’t helpful when a user is wanting to embed the resources of a specific library, to enable full-text access links and ); second, my app needs to enable the user to return these links to the LMS so that students / course participants can click on them.

For the second point, there is an LTI specification called the “content-item-message” that indicates that the type of interaction requested from the tool is the return of a link to the LMS.  The LMS must include this input parameter in the POST request to the tool.  The LMS “knows” to send this parameter when the tool is initially installed in the LMS.

<input type="hidden" name="lti_message_type" value="ContentItemSelectionRequest" />

The POST request to the tool must also indicate the return URL (e.g., the URL back to the LMS) where the link should be sent (the LMS should generate this input parameter for you; your tool just needs to identify this parameter and include it in the POST request to return the link to the LMS):

<input type="hidden" name="content_item_return_url" value="http://www.tc.com/item-return" />

The Tool provider must then render the link to be imported with some description of the content in JSON, for example:

{
  "@context" : "http://purl.imsglobal.org/ctx/lti/v1/ContentItem", 
  "@graph" : [ 
    { "@type" : "LtiLinkItem",
      "url" : "https://someinstitution.worldcat.org/oclc/709669613",
      "mediaType" : "text/html",
      "title" : "Global Warming: Hype or Hazard?"
    }
  ]
}

See the Content Item Message documentation for more details on returning JSON suitable for consumption by the LMS.

Learn, and do, more with LTI

You may find the basic LTI class script included in the Harvard LTI tutorial are insufficient for your use case – the code is a bit aged and the LTI specification has moved on.

A more robust LTI tool provider PHP library than the basic one included in the Harvard tutorial has been made available by IMS Global on GitHub.  You can also find a more complex complete sample app called “Rating” that is a great example of more complex kinds of interactions with an LTI app, including how you might build a server-side data store and recall that data through the LTI app, and how you might handle the assignment of grades or scores through an LTI app.

To learn more, the Canvas Learning Management system has an excellent open course on LTI development that you can enroll yourself in with a free Canvas account.  Once enrolled in the course, you can launch your own locally developed LTI app within the course to check how parameters and data are exchanged between the LMS and the tool.

  1.  See this post on LTI and OAuth for a straightforward discussion of the general implications of OAuth for LTI application development.
  2. I skipped the steps for installing Vagrant and VirtualBox and the tutorial still worked great for me on my MAMP server, so if you’re concerned about installing those and already have a local development server installed (or you’re just working from a LAMP server online) the tutorial will still work for you.