Where do Library Staff Learn About Programming? Some Preliminary Survey Results

[Editor’s Note:  This post is part of a series of posts related to ACRL TechConnect’s 2015 survey on Programming Languages, Frameworks, and Web Content Management Systems in Libraries.  The survey was distributed between January and March 2015 and received 265 responses.  A longer journal article with additional analysis is also forthcoming.  For a quick summary of the article below, check out this infographic.]

Our survey on programming languages in libraries has resulted in a mountain of fascinating data.  One of the goals of our survey was to better understand how staff in libraries learn about programming and develop their coding skills.  Based upon anecdotal evidence, we hypothesized that library staff members are often self-taught, learning through a combination of on-the-job learning and online tutorials.  Our findings indicate that respondents use a wide variety of sources to learn about programming, including MOOCs, online tutorials, Google searches, and colleagues.

Are programming skills gained by formal coursework, or in Library Science Master’s Programs?

We were interested in identifying sources of programming learning, whether that involved course work (either formal coursework as part of a degree or continuing education program, or through Massive Online Open Courseware (MOOCs)).  Nearly two-thirds of respondents indicated they had an MLS or were working on one:

When asked about coursework taken in programming, application, or software development, results were mixed, with the most popular choice being 1-2 classes:

However, of those respondents who have taken a course in programming (about 80% of all respondents) AND indicated that they either had an MLS or were attending an MLS program, only about a third had taken any of those courses as part of a Master’s in Library Science program:

Resources for learning about programming

The final question of the survey asked respondents, in an open-ended way, to describe resources they use to learn about programming.  It was a pretty complex question:

Please list or describe any learning resources, discussion boards or forums, or other methods you use to learn about or develop your skills in programming, application development, or scripting. Please includes links to online resources if available. Examples of resources include, but are not limited to: Lynda.com, MOOC courses, local community/college/university course on programming, Books, Code4Lib listserv, Stack Overflow, etc.).

Respondents gave, in many cases, incredibly detailed responses – and most respondents indicated a list of resources used.  After coding the responses into 10 categories, some trends emerged.  The most popular resources for learning about programming, by far, were courses (whether those courses were taken formally in a classroom environment, or online in a MOOC environment):

To better illustrate what each category entails, here are the top five resources in each category:

By far, the most commonly cited learning resource was Stack Overflow, followed by the Code4Lib Listserv, Books/ebooks (unspecified) and Lynda.com.  Results may skew a little toward these resources because they were mentioned as examples in the question, priming respondents to include them in their responses.  Since links to the survey were distributed, among other places, on the Code4Lib listserv, its prominence may also be influenced by response bias. One area that was a little surprising was the number of respondents that included social networks (including in-person networks like co-workers) as resources – indeed, respondents who mentioned colleagues as learning resources were particularly enthusiastic, as one respondent put it:

…co-workers are always very important learning resources, perhaps the most important!

Preliminary Analysis

While the data isn’t conclusive enough to draw any strong conclusions yet, a few thoughts come to mind:

  • About 3/4 of respondents indicated that programming was either part of their job description, or that they use programming or scripting as part of their work, even if it’s not expressly part of their job.  And yet, only about a third of respondents with an MLS (or in the process of getting one) took a programming class as part of their MLS program.  Programming is increasingly an essential skill for library work, and this survey seems to support the view that there should be more programming courses in library school curriculum.
  • Obviously programming work is not monolithic – there’s lots of variation among those who do programming work that isn’t reflected in our survey, and this survey may have unintentionally excluded those who are hobby coders.  Most questions focused on programming used when performing work-related tasks, so additional research would be needed to identify learning strategies of enthusiast programmers who don’t have the opportunity to program as part of their job.
  • Respondents indicated that learning on the job is an important aspect of their work; they may not have time or institutional support for formal training or courses, and figure things out as they go along using forums like Stack Overflow and Code4Lib’s listserv.  As one respondent put it:

Codecademy got me started. Stack Overflow saves me hours of time and effort, on a regular basis, as it helps me with answers to specific, time-of-need questions, helping me do problem-based learning.

TL;DR?  Here’s an infographic:

In the next post, I’ll discuss some of the findings related to ways administration and supervisors support (or don’t support) programming work in libraries.

Removing the Truthiness from Google

A decade ago, Stephen Colbert introduced the concept of “truthiness”, or a fact that was so because it felt right “from the gut.” When we search for information online, we are always up against the risk that the creator of a page is someone who, like Stephen Colbert’s character doesn’t trust books, because “they’re all fact, no heart.”1 Since sites with questionable or outright false facts that “feel right” often end up at the top of Google search results, librarians teach students how to evaluate online sources for accuracy, relevancy, and so on rather than just trusting the top result. But what if there were a way to ensure that truthiness was removed, and only sites with true information appeared at the top of the results?

This idea is what underlies a new Google algorithm called Knowledge-Based Trust(KBT)2. Google’s original founding principles and the PageRank algorithm were based on academic citation practices–loosely summarized, pages linked to by a number of other pages are more likely to be useful than those with fewer links. The content of the page, while it needs to match the search query, is less crucial to its ranking than outside factors, which is otherwise known as an exogenous model. The KBT, by contrast, is an endogenous model relying on the actual content of the page. Ranking is based on the probability that the page is accurate, and therefore more trustworthy. This is designed to address the problem of sites with high PageRank scores that aren’t accurate, either because their truthiness quotient is high, or because they have gamed the system by scraping content and applying misleading SEO. On the other side, pages with great information that aren’t very popular may be buried.

“Wait a second,” you are now asking yourself, “Google now determines what is true?” The answer is: sort of, but of course it’s not as simple as that. Let’s look at the paper in detail, and then come back to the philosophical questions.

Digging Into the KBT

First, this paper is technical, but the basic information is fairly straightforward. This model is based on extracting facts from a web source, evaluating whether those facts are true or not, and then whether a source is accurate or not. This leads to a determination that the facts are correct in an iterative process. Of course, verifying that determination is essential to ensuring that all the algorithms are working correctly, and this paper describes ways of checking the extracted facts for accuracy.

The extractors are described more fully in an earlier version of this work, Knowledge Vault (KV), which was designed to fill in large-scale knowledge bases such as Freebase by extracting facts from a web source using techniques like Natural Language Processing of text files followed by machine learning, HTML DOM trees, HTML tables, and human processed pages with schema.org metadata. The extractors themselves can perform poorly in creating these triples, however, and this is more common than the facts being wrong, and so sites may be unfairly flagged as inaccurate. The KBT project aims to introduce an algorithm for determining what type of error is present, as well as how to judge sites with many or few facts accurately, and lastly to test their assumptions using real world data against known facts.

The specific example given in the paper is the birthplace of President Barack Obama. The extractor would determine a predicate, subject, object triple from a web source and match these strings to Freebase (for example). This can lead to a number of errors–there is a huge problem in computationally determining the truth even when the semantics are straightforward (which we all know it rarely is). For this example, it’s possible to check data from the web against the known value in Freebase, and so if that extractor works set an option to 1 (for yes) and 0 (for no). Then this can be charted in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional matrix that helps show the probability of a given extractor working, as well as whether the value pulled by the extractor was true or not.

They go on to examine two models for computing the data, single-layer and multi-layer. The single-layer model, which looks at each web source and its facts separately, is easier to work with using standard techniques but is limited because it doesn’t take into account extraction errors. The multi-layer model is more complex to analyze, but takes the extraction errors into account along with the truth errors. I am not qualified to comment on the algorithm math in detail, but essentially it computes probability of accuracy for each variable in turn, ultimately arriving at an equation that estimates how accurate a source is, weighted by the likelihood that source contains those facts. There are additional considerations for precision and recall, as well as confidence levels returned by extractors.

Lastly, they consider how to split up large sources to avoid computational bottlenecks, as well as to merge sources with few facts in order to not penalize them but not accidentally combine unrelated sources. Their experimental results determined that generally PageRank and KBT are orthogonal, but with a few outliers. In some cases, the site has a low PageRank but a high KBT. They manually verified the top three predicates with high extraction accuracy scores for web sources with a high KBT to check what was happening. 85% of these sources were trustworthy without extraction errors and with predicates related to the topic of the page, but only 23% of these sources had PageRank scores over 0.5. In other cases, sources had a low KBT but high PageRank, which included sites such as celebrity gossip sites and forums such as Yahoo Answers. Yes, indeed, Google computer scientists finally have definitive proof that Yahoo Answers tends to be inaccurate.

The conclusion of the article with future improvements reads like the learning outcomes for any basic information literacy workshop. First, the algorithm would need to be able to tell the main topic of the website and filter out unrelated facts, to understand which triples are trivial, to have better comprehension of what is a fact, and to correctly remove sites with data scraped from other sources. That said, for what it does, this is a much more sophisticated model than anything else out there, and at least proves that there is a possibility to computationally determine the accuracy of a web source.

What is Truth, Anyway?

Despite the promise of this model there are clearly many potential problems, of which I’ll mention just a few. The source for this exercise, Freebase, is currently in read-only mode as its data migrates to Wikidata. Google is apparently dropping Freebase to focus on their Open Knowledge Graph, which is partially Freebase/Wikidata content and partially schema.org data 3. One interesting wrinkle is that much of Freebase content cites Wikipedia as a source, which means there are currently recursive citations that must be properly cited before they will be accepted as facts. We already know that Wikipedia suffers from a lack of diversity in contributors and topic coverage, so a focus on content from Wikipedia has the danger of reducing the sources of information from which the KBT could check triples.

That said, most of human knowledge and understanding is difficult to fit into triples. While surely no one would search Google for “What is love?” or similar and expect to get a factual answer, there are plenty of less extreme examples that are unclear. For instance, how does this account for controversial topics? I.e. “anthropogenic global warming is real” vs. “global warming is real, but it’s not anthropogenic.” 97% of scientists agree to the former, but what if you are looking for what the 3% are saying?

And we might question whether it’s a good idea to trust an algorithm’s definition of what is true. As Bess Sadler and Chris Bourg remind us, algorithms are not neutral, and may ignore large parts of human experience, particularly from groups underrepresented in computer science and technology. Librarians should have a role in reducing that ignorance by supporting “inclusion, plurality, participation and transparency.” 4 Given the limitations of what is available to the KBT it seems unlikely that this algorithm would markedly reduce this inequity, though I could see how it could be possible if Wikidata could be seeded with more information about diverse groups.

Librarians take note, this algorithm is still under development, and most likely won’t be appearing in our Google results any time in the near future. And even once it does, we need to ensure that we are still paying attention to nuance, edge cases, and our own sense of truthiness–and more importantly, truth–as we evaluate web sources.

  1. http://thecolbertreport.cc.com/videos/63ite2/the-word—truthiness.
  2. Dong, X. et al. “Knowledge-Based Trust: Estimating the Trustworthiness of Web Sources”. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 2015. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03519
  3. https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Help:FAQ/Freebase
  4. Sadler, Bess and Chris Bourg, “Feminism and the Future of Library Discovery.” Code4Lib Journal 28, April 2015.

Best Practices for Hacking Third-Party Sites

While customizing vendor web services is not the most glamorous task, it’s something almost every library does. Whether we have full access to a templating system, as with LibGuides 2, or merely the ability to insert an HTML header or footer, as on many database platforms, we are tested by platform limitations and a desire to make our organization’s fractured web presence cohesive and usable.

What does customizing a vendor site look like? Let’s look at one example before going into best practices. Many libraries subscribe to EBSCO databases, which have a corresponding administrative side “EBSCOadmin”. Electronic Resources and Web Librarians commonly have credentials for these admin sites. When we sign into EBSCOadmin, there are numerous configuration options for our database subscriptions, including a “branding” tab under the “Customize Services” section.

While EBSCO’s branding options include specifying the primary and secondary colors of their databases, there’s also a “bottom branding” section which allows us to inject custom HTML. Branding colors can be important, but this post is focuses on effectively injecting markup onto vendor web pages. The steps for doing so in EBSCOadmin are numerous and not informative for any other system, but the point is that when given custom HTML access one can make many modifications, from inserting text on the page, to an entirely new stylesheet, to modifying user interface behavior with JavaScript. Below, I’ve turned footer links orange and written a message to my browser’s JavaScript console using the custom HTML options in EBSCOadmin.

customized EBSCO database

These opportunities for customization come in many flavors. We might have access only to a section of HTML in the header or footer of a page. We might be customizing the appearance of our link resolver, subscription databases, or catalog. Regardless, there are a few best practices which can aid us in making modifications that are effective.

General Best Practices

Ditch best practices when they become obstacles

It’s too tempting; I have to start this post about best practices by noting their inherent limitations. When we’re working with a site designed by someone else, the quality of our own code is restricted by decisions they made for unknown reasons. Commonly-spouted wisdom—reduce HTTP requests! don’t use eval! ID selectors should be avoided!—may be unusable or even counter-productive.

To note but one shining example: CSS specificity. If you’ve worked long enough with CSS then you know that it’s easy to back yourself into a corner by using overly powerful selectors like IDs or—the horror—inline style attributes. These methods of applying CSS have high specificity, which means that CSS written later in a stylesheet or loaded later in the HTML document might not override them as anticipated, a seeming contradiction in the “cascade” part of CSS. The hydrogen bomb of specificity is the !important modifier which automatically overrides anything but another !important later in the page’s styles.

So it’s best practice to avoid inline style attributes, ID selectors, and especially !important. Except when hacking on vendor sites it’s often necessary. What if we need to override an inline style? Suddenly, !important looks necessary. So let’s not get caught up following rules written for people in greener pastures; we’re already in the swamp, throwing some mud around may be called for.

There are dozens of other examples that come to mind. For instance, in serving content from a vendor site where we have no server-side control, we may be forced to violate web performance best practices such as sending assets with caching headers and utilizing compression. While minifying code is another performance best practice, for small customizations it adds little but obfuscates our work for other staff. Keeping a small script or style tweak human-readable might be more prudent. Overall, understanding why certain practices are recommended, and when it’s appropriate to sacrifice them, can aid our decision-making.

Test. Test. Test. When you’re done testing, test again

Whenever we’re creating an experience on the web it’s good to test. To test with Chrome, with Firefox, with Internet Explorer. To test on an iPhone, a Galaxy S4, a Chromebook. To test on our university’s wired network, on wireless, on 3G. Our users are vast; they contain multitudes. We try to represent their experiences as best as possible in the testing environment, knowing that we won’t emulate every possibility.

Testing is important, sure. But when hacking a third party site, the variance is more than doubled. The vendor has likely done their own testing. They’ve likely introduced their own hacks that work around issues with specific browsers, devices, or connectivity conditions. They may be using server-side device detection to send out subtly different versions of the site to different users; they may not offer the same functionality in all situations. All of these circumstances mean that testing is vitally important and unending. We will never cover enough ground to be sure our hacks are foolproof, but we better try or they’ll not work at all.

Analytics and error reporting

Speaking of testing, how will we know when something goes wrong? Surely, our users will send us a detailed error report, complete with screenshots and the full schematics of every piece of hardware and software involved. After all, they do not have lives or obligations of their own. They exist merely to make our code more error-proof.

If, however, for some odd reason someone does not report an error, we may still want to know that one occurred. It’s good to set up unobtrusive analytics that record errors or other measures of interaction. Did we revamp a form to add additional validation? Try tracking what proportion of visitors successfully submit the form, how often the validation is violated, how often users submit invalid data multiple times in a row, and how often our code encounters an error. There are some intriguing client-side error reporting services out there that can catch JavaScript errors and detail them for our perusal later. But even a little work with events in Google Analytics can log errors, successes, and everything in between. With the mere information that problems are occurring, we may be able to identify patterns, focus our testing, and ultimately improve our customizations and end-user experience.

Know when to cut your losses

Some aspects of a vendor site are difficult to customize. I don’t want to say impossible, since one can do an awful lot with only a single <script> tag to work with, but unfeasible. Sometimes it’s best to know when sinking more time and effort into a customization isn’t worth it.

For instance, our repository has a “hierarchy browse” feature which allows us to present filtered subsets of items to users. We often get requests to customize the hierarchies for specific departments or purposes—can we change the default sort, can we hide certain info here but not there, can we use grid instead of list-based results? We probably can, because the hierarchy browse allows us to inject arbitrary custom HTML at the top of each section. But the interface for doing so is a bit clumsy and would need to be repeated everywhere a customization is made, sometimes across dozens of places simply to cover a single department’s work. So while many of these change requests are technically possible, they’re unwise. Updates would be difficult and impossible to automate, virtually ensuring errors are introduced over time as I forget to update one section or make a manual mistake somewhere. Instead, I can focus on customizing the site-wide theme to fix other, potentially larger issues with more maintainable solutions.

A good alternative to tricky and unmaintainable customizations is to submit a feature request to the vendor. Some vendors have specific sites where we can submit ideas for new features and put our support behind others’ ideas. For instance, the Innovative Users Group hosts an annual vote where members can select their most desired enhancement requests. Remember that vendors want to make a better product after all; our feedback is valued. Even if there’s no formal system for submitting feature requests, a simple email to our sales representative or customer support can help.

CSS Best Practices

While the above section spoke to general advice, CSS and JavaScript have a few specific peculiarities to keep in mind while working within a hostile host environment.

Don’t write brittle, overly-specific selectors

There are two unifying characteristics of hacking on third-party sites: 1) we’re unfamiliar with the underlying logic of why the site is constructed in a particular way and 2) everything is subject to change without notice. Both of these making targeting HTML elements, whether with CSS or JavaScript, challenging. We want our selectors to be as flexible as possible, to withstand as much change as possible without breaking. Say we have the following list of helpful tools in a sidebar:

<div id="tools">
        <li><span class="icon icon-hat"></span><a href="#">Email a Librarian</a></li>
        <li><span class="icon icon-turtle"></span><a href="#">Citations</a></li>
        <li><span class="icon icon-unicorn"></span><a href="#">Catalog</a></li>

We can modify the icons listed with a selector like #tools > ul > li > span.icon.icon-hat. But many small changes could break this style: a wrapper layer injected in between the #tools div and the unordered list, a switch from unordered to ordered list, moving from <span>s for icons to another tag such as <i>. Instead, a selector like #tools .icon.icon-hat assumes that little will stay the same; it thinks there’ll be icons inside the #tools section, but doesn’t care about anything in between. Some assumptions have to stay, that’s the nature of customizing someone else’s site, but it’s pretty safe to bet on the icon classes to remain.

In general, sibling and child selectors make for poor choices for vendor sites. We’re suddenly relying not just on tags, classes, and IDs to stay the same, but also the particular order that elements appear in. I’d also argue that pseudo-selectors like :first-child, :last-child, and :nth-child() are dangerous for the same reason.

Avoid positioning if possible

Positioning and layout can be tricky to get right on a vendor site. Unless we’re confident in our tests and have covered all the edge cases, try to avoid properties like position and float. In my experience, many poorly structured vendor sites employ ad hoc box-sizing measurements, float-based layout, and lack a grid system. These are all a recipe for weird interconnections between disparate parts—we try to give a call-out box a bit more padding and end up sending the secondary navigation flying a thousand pixels to the right offscreen.

display: none is your friend

display: none is easily my most frequently used CSS property when I customize vendor sites. Can’t turn off a feature in the admin options? Hide it from the interface entirely. A particular feature is broken on mobile? Hide it. A feature is of niche appeal and adds more clutter than it’s worth? Hide it. The footer? Yeah, it’s a useless advertisement, let’s get rid of it. display: none is great but remember it does affect a site’s layout; the hidden element will collapse and no longer take up space, so be careful when hiding structural elements that are presented as menus or columns.

Attribute selectors are excellent

Attribute selectors, which enable us to target an element by the value of any of its HTML attributes, are incredibly powerful. They aren’t very common, so here’s a quick refresher on what they look. Say we have the following HTML element:

<a href="http://example.com" title="the best site, seriously" target="_blank">

This is an anchor tag with three attributes: href, title, and target. Attribute selectors allow us to target an element by whether it has an attribute or an attribute with a particular value, like so:

/* applies to <a> tags with a "target" attribute */
a[target] {
    background: red;
/* applies to <a> tags with an "href" that begin with "http://"
this is a great way to style links pointed at external websites
or one particular external website! */
a[href^="http://"] {
    cursor: help;
/* applies to <a> tags with the text "best" anywhere in their "title" attribute */
a[title*="best"] {
    font-variant: small-caps;

Why is this useful among the many ways we can select elements in CSS? Vendor sites often aren’t anticipating all the customizations we want to employ; they may not provide handy class and ID styling hooks where we need them. Or, as noted above, the structure of the document may be subject to change either over time or across different pieces of the site. Attribute selectors can help mitigate this by making style bindings more explicit. Instead of saying “change the background icon for some random span inside a list inside a div”, we can say “change the background icon for the link that points at our citation management tool”.

If that’s unclear, let me give another example from our institutional repository. While we have the ability to list custom links in the main left-hand navigation of our site, we cannot control the icons that appear with them. What’s worse, there are virtually no styling hooks available; we have an unadorned anchor tag to work with. But that turns out to be plenty for a selector of form a[href$=hierarchy] to target all <a>s with an href ending in “hierarchy”; suddenly we can define icon styles based on the URLs we’re pointing it, which is exactly what we want to base them on anyways.

Attribute selectors are brittle in their own ways—when our URLs change, these icons will break. But they’re a handy tool to have.

JavaScript Best Practices

Avoid the global scope

JavaScript has a notorious problem with global variables. By default, all variables lacking the var keyword are made global. Furthermore, variables outside the scope of any function will also be global. Global variables are considered harmful because they too easily allow unrelated pieces of code to interact; when everything’s sharing the same namespace, the chance that common names like i for index or count are used in two conflicting contexts increases greatly.

To avoid polluting the global scope with our own code, we wrap our entire script customizations in an immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE):

(function() {
    // do stuff here 

Wrapping our code in this hideous-looking construction gives it its own scope, so we can define variables without fear of overwriting ones in the global scope. As a bonus, our code still has access to global variables like window and navigator. However, global variables defined by the vendor site itself are best avoided; it is possible they will change or are subject to strange conditions that we can’t determine. Again, the fewer assumptions our code makes about how the vendor’s site works, the more resilient it will be.

Avoid calling vendor-provided functions

Oftentimes the vendor site itself will put important functions in the global scope, funtions like submitForm or validate where their intention seems quite obvious. We may even be able to reverse engineer their code a bit, determining what the parameters we should pass to these functions are. But we must not succumb to the temptation to actually reference their code within our own!

Even if we have a decent handle on the vendor’s current code, it is far too subject to change. Instead, we should seek to add or modify site functionality in a more macro-like way; instead of calling vendor functions in our code, we can automate interactions with the user interface. For instance, say the “save” button is in an inconvenient place on a form and has the following code:

<button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" onclick="submitForm(0)">Save</button>

We can see that the button saves the form by calling the submitForm function when it’s clicked with a value of 0. Maybe we even figure out that 0 means “no errors” whereas 1 means “error”.1 So we could create another button somewhere which calls this same submitForm function. But so many changes break our code; if the meaning of the “0” changes, if the function name changes, or if something else happens when the save button is clicked that’s not evident in the markup. Instead, we can have our new button trigger the click event on the original save button exactly as a user interacting with the site would. In this way, our new save button should emulate exactly the behavior of the old one through many types of changes.

{{Insert Your Best Practices Here}}

Web-savvy librarians of the world, what are the practices you stick to when modifying your LibGuides, catalog, discovery layer, databases, etc.? It’s actually been a while since I did customization outside of my college’s IR, so the ideas in this post are more opinion than practice. If you have your own techniques—or disagree with the ones in this post!—we’d love to hear about it in the comments.


  1. True story, I reverse engineered a vendor form where this appeared to be the case.

Educating Your Campus about Predatory Publishers

The recent publication of Monica Berger and Jill Cirasella’s piece in College and Research Libraries News “Beyond Beall’s List: Better understanding predatory publishers” is a reminder that the issue of “predatory publishers” continues to require focus for those working in scholarly communication. Berger and Cirasella have done a exemplary job of laying out some of the issues with Beall’s list, and called on librarians to be able “to describe the beast, its implications, and its limitations—neither understating nor overstating its size and danger.”

At my institution academic deans have identified “predatory” journals as an area of concern, and I am sure similar conversations are happening at other institutions. Here’s how I’ve “described the beast” at my institution, and models for services we all can provide, whether subject librarian or scholarly communication librarian.

What is a Predatory Publisher? And Why Does the Dean Care?

The concept of predatory publishers became much more widely known in 2013 with a publication of an open access sting by John Bohannon in Science, which I covered in this post. As a recap, Bohannon created a fake but initially believable poor quality scientific article, and submitted it to open access journals. He found that the majority of journals accepted the poor quality paper, 45% of which were included in the Directory of Open Access Journals. At the time of publication in October 2013 the response to this article was explosive in the scholarly communications world. It seems that more than a year later the reaction continues to spread. Late in the fall semester of 2014, library administration asked me to prepare a guide about predatory publishers, due to concern among the deans that unscrupulous publishers might be taking advantage of faculty. This was a topic I’d been educating faculty about on an ad hoc basis for years, but I never realized we needed to address it more systematically. That all has changed, with senior library administration now doing regular presentations about predatory publishers to faculty.

If we are to be advocates of open access, we need to focus on the positive impact that open access has rather than dwell for too long on the bad sides of it. We also need faculty to be clear on their own goals for making their work open access so that they may make more informed choices. Librarians have limited faculty bandwidth on the topic, and so focusing on education about self-archiving articles (otherwise known as green open access) or choosing no-fee (also known as gold) open access journals is a better way to achieve advocacy goals than suggesting faculty choose only a certain set of gold open access journals. Unless we are offering money for paying article fees, we also don’t have much say about where faculty choose to publish. Education about how to choose a journal and a license responsibly is what we should focus on, even if it diverges from certain ideals (see Meredith Farkas on choosing creative commons licenses.)

Understanding the Needs and Preparing the Material

As I mentioned, my library administration asked for a guide that that they could use in presentations and share with faculty. In preparing this guide, I worked with our library’s Scholarly Communications committee (of which I am co-chair) to determine the format and content.

We decided that adding this material to our existing Open Access research guide would be the best move, since it was already up and we shared the URL widely already. We have a robust series of Open Access Week events (which I wrote about last fall) and this seemed to ideal place to continue engaging people. That said, we determined that the guide needed an overhaul to make it more clear that open access was an on-going area of concern, not a once a year event. Since faculty are not always immediately thinking of making work open access but of the mechanics of publishing, I preferred to start with the title “Publishing Your Own Work”.

To describe its features a bit more, I wanted to start from the mindset of self-archiving work to make it open access with a description of our repository and Peter Suber’s useful guide to making one’s own work open access. I then continued with an explanation of article publication fees, since I often get questions along those lines. They are not unique to open access journals, and don’t imply any fee to accept for publication, which was a fear that I heard more than once during Open Access Week last year. I only then discussed the concept of predatory journals, with the hope that a basic understanding of the process would allay fears. I then present a list of steps to research a journal. I thought these steps were more common sense than anything, but after conversations with faculty and administration, I realized that my intuition about what type of journal I am dealing with is obvious because I have daily practice and experience. For people new to the topic I tried to break down research into easy steps that help them to figure out where a journal is on the continuum from outright scams to legitimate but new or unusual journals. It was also important to me to emphasize self-archiving as a strategy no matter the journal publication model.

Lastly, while most academic libraries have a model of liaison librarians engaging in scholarly communications activities, the person who spends every day working on these issues is likely to be more versed in emerging trends. So it is important to work with liaisons to help them research journals and to identify quality open access journals in their disciplines. We plan to add this information to the guide in a future version.

Taking it on the Road

We felt that in-person instruction on these matters with faculty was a crucial next step, particularly for people who publish in traditional journals but want to make their work available. Traditional journals’ copyright transfer agreements can be predatory, even if we don’t think about it in those terms. Taking inspiration from the ACRL Scholarly Communications Roadshow I attended a few years ago, I decided to take the curriculum from that program and offer it to faculty and graduate students. We read through three publication agreements as a group, and then discussed how open the publishers were to reuse of material, or whether they mentioned it at all. We then included a section on addenda to contracts for negotiation about additional rights.

The first workshop received modest attendance, but included some thoughtful conversations, and we have promised to run it again. Some people may never have read their agreements closely, and never realized they were doing something illegal or not specifically allowed by, for instance, sharing an article they wrote with their students. That concrete realization is more likely to spur action than more abstract arguments about the benefits of open access.

Escaping the Predator Metaphor

If I could go back, I would get rid of the concept of “predator” attached to open access journals. Let’s call it instead unscrupulous entrants into an emerging business model. That’s not as catchy, but it explains why this has happened. I would argue, personally, that the hybrid gold journals by large publishers are just as predatory, as they capitalize on funding requirements to make articles open access with high fees. They too are trying new business models, and those may not be tenable either. As I said above, choosing a journal with eyes wide open and understanding all the ramifications of different publication models is the only way forward. To suggest that faculty are innocently waiting to be pounced on by predators is to deny their agency and their ability to make choices about their own work. There may be days where that metaphor seems apt, but I think overall this is a damaging mentality to librarians interested in promoting new models of scholarly communication. I hope we can provide better resources and programming to escape this, as well as to help administration to understand how to choose to fund open access initiatives.

In the comments I’d like to hear more suggestions about how to escape the “predator” metaphor, as well as your own techniques for educating faculty on your campus.

GIS and Geospatial Data Tools

I was recently appointed the geography subject librarian for my library, which was mildly terrifying considering that I do not have a background in geography. But I was assigned the subject because of my interest in data visualization, and since my appointment I’ve learned a few things about the awesome potential opportunities to integrate Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geospatial visualization tools into information literacy instruction and library services generally.  A little bit of knowledge about GIS and geospatial visualization goes a long way, and is useful across a variety of disciplines, including social sciences, business, humanities and environmental studies and sciences.   If you are into open data (who isn’t?) and you like maps and / or data visualization (who doesn’t?!) then it’s definitely worth it to learn about some tools and resources to work with geospatial information.

About GIS and Geospatial Data

Geographic Information Systems, or GIS, are software tools that enable visualizing and interpreting data (social, demographic, economic, political, topographic, spatial, natural resources, etc.) using maps and geospatial data. Often data is visualized using layers, where a base map (containing, for example, a political map of a city) or tiles are overlaid with shapes, data points, or choropleth shading. For example, in the map below, a map of districts in Tokyo is overlaid with data points representing the number of seniors living in the area: 1

You may be familiar with Google Earth, which has a lot of features similar to a GIS (but is arguably not really a GIS, due to its lack of data analysis and query tools typically found in a fully-featured GIS). You can download a free Pro version of Google Earth that enables you to import GIS data. GIS data can appear in a variety of formats, and while there isn’t space here to go into each of them, a few common formats you might come across include Shapefiles, KML, and GeoJSON2  Shapefiles, as the name suggests, represent shapes (e.g., polygons) as layers of vector data that can be visualized in GIS programs and Google Earth Pro.  You may also come across KML files (Keyhole Markup Language), which is an XML-style standard  for representing geographic data, and is commonly used with Google Earth and Google Maps.  GeoJSON is another format for representing geospatial information that is ideal for use with web services.  The various formats of GIS and geospatial data deserve a full post on their own, and I plan to write a follow-up post exploring some of these formats and how they are used in greater detail.

GIS/Geospatial Visualization Tools


ArcGIS is arguably the industry standard for GIS software, and the maker of ArcGIS (ESRI) publishes manuals and guides for GIS students and practitioners.  There are a few different ArcGIS products:  ArcGIS for Desktop, ArcGIS Online, and ArcGIS server.  Personally I am only familiar with ArcGIS online, but you can do some pretty cool things with a totally free account, like create this map of where drones can and cannot fly in the United States: 3

ArcGIS can be very powerful and is particularly useful for complex geospatial datasets and visualizations (particularly visualizations that might require multiple layers of data or topographic / geologic data). A note about signing up with ArcGIS online:  You don’t actually need to sign up for a ‘free trial’ to explore the software – you can just create a free account that, as I understand it, is not limited to a trial period.  Not all features may be available in the completely free account.


CartoDB is both an open source application and a freemium cloud service that can be used to make some pretty amazing geospatial visualizations that can be embedded in web pages, like this choropleth that visualizes the amount of various kinds of pollution across Los Angeles.4

CartoDB’s aesthetics are really strong, and default map settings tend to be pretty gorgeous.  It also leverages Torque to enable animations (which is what’s behind the heatmap animation of this map showing Twitter activity related to Ferguson, MO over time).5  CartoDB can import Shapefiles, GeoJSON, and .csv files, and has a robust SQL API (built on PostGreSQL) that can be used to import and export data. CartoDB also has its own JavaScript library (CartoDB.js) that can be leveraged for building attractive custom apps.

More JavaScript Libraries

In addition to CartoDB.js mentioned above, there are lots of other flexible JavaScript libraries for mapping and geospatial visualization on the scene that can be leveraged for visualizing geospatial data:

  • OpenLayers – OpenLayers enables pulling in ’tile’ layers as base maps from a variety of sources, as well as enabling parsing of vector data in a wide range of formats, such as GeoJSON and KML.
  • Leaflet.js – A fairly user-friendly and lightweight library used for creating basic interactive, mobile-friendly maps.  In my opinion, Leaflet is a good library to get started with if you’re just jumping in to geospatial visualization.
  • D3.js – Everyone’s favorite JavaScript charting library also has some geospatial visualization features for certain kinds of maps, such as this choropleth example.
  • Mapbox Mapbox.js is a JavaScript API library built on top of Leaflet.js, but Mapbox also offers a suite of tools for more extensive mapping and geospatial visualization needs

Open Geospatial Data

Librarians wanting to integrate geospatial data visualization and GIS into interdisciplinary instruction can take advantage of open data sets that are increasingly available online. Sui (2014) notes that increasingly large data sets are being released freely and openly on the web, which is an exciting trend for GIS and open data enthusiasts. However, Sui also notes that the mere fact that data is legally released and made accessible “does not necessarily mean that data is usable (unless one has the technical expertise); thus they are not actually used at all.”6  Libraries could play a crucial role in helping users understand and interpret public data by integrating data visualization into information literacy instruction.

Some popular places to find open data that could be used in geospatial visualiation include:

  • Data.gov  Since 2009, Data.gov has published thousands of public open datasets, including datasets containing geographic and geospatial information.  As of this month, you can now open geospatial data files directly in CartoDB (requires a CartoDB account) to start making visualizations.  There isn’t a huge amount of geospatial data available currently, but Data.gov will hopefully benefit from initiatives like Project Open Data, which was launched in 2013 by the White House and designed to accelerate the publishing of open data sets by government agencies.
  • Google Public Data Explorer – This is a somewhat small set of public data that Google has gathered from other open data repositories (such as Eurostat) that can be directly visualized using Google charting tools.  For example, you could create a visualization of European population change by country using data available through the Public Data Explorer.  While the currently available data is pretty limited, Google has prepared a kind of open data metadata standard (Data Set Publishing Language, or DSPL) that might increase the availability of data through the explorer if the standard takes off.
  • publicdata.eu – The destination for Europe’s public open data, a nice feature of publicdata.eu is the ability to filter down to datasets that contain Shapefiles (.shp files) that can be directly imported into GIS software or Google Earth Pro.
  • OpenStreetMap (OSM) –  Open, crowdsourced street map data that can be downloaded or referenced to create basemaps or other geospatial visualizations that rely on transportation networks (roads, railways, walking paths, etc.).  OpenStreetMap data are open, so for those who would prefer to make applications that are based entirely on open data (rather than commercial solutions), OSM can be combined with JavaScript libraries like Leaflet.js for fully open geospatial applications.

GIS and Geospatial Visualization In the Library

I feel like I’ve only really scratched the surface with the possibilities for libraries to get involved with GIS and geospatial data.  Libraries are doing really exciting things with these technologies, whether it’s creating new ways of interacting with historical maps, lending GPS units, curating and preserving geospatial data, exploring geospatial linked data possibilities with GeoSPARQL or integrating GIS or geospatial visualization into information literacy / instruction programs.  For more ideas about integrating GIS and geospatial visualization into library instruction and services, check out these guides:

(EDIT 4/13) Also be sure to check out ALA’s Map and Geospatial Information Round Table (MAGIRT).  Thanks to Paige Andrew and Kathy Weimer for pointing out this awesome resource in the comments.

If you’re working on something awesome related to geospatial data in your library and would be interested in writing about it for ACRL TechConnect, contact me on Twitter @lpmagnuson or drop me a line in the comments!


  1. AtlasPublisher. Tokyo Senior Population. https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=6990a8c5e87b42ee80701cf985383d5d.  (Note:  Apologies if you have trouble seeing or zooming in on embedded visualizations in this post; the interaction behavior of these embedded iframes can be a little unpredictable if your cursor gets near them.  It’s definitely a drawback of embedding these interactive visualizations as iframes.)
  2. The Open Geospatial Consortium is an organization that gathers and shares information about geographic and geospatial data formats, and details about a variety of geospatial file formats and standards can be found on its website:  http://www.opengeospatial.org/.
  3. ESRI. A Nation of Drones. http://story.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/?appid=79798a56715c4df183448cc5b7e1b999
  4. Lauder, Thomas Suh (2014).  Pollution Burdenshttp://graphics.latimes.com/responsivemap-pollution-burdens/.
  5. YMMV, but the performance of map animations that use Torque seems to be a little tricky, especially when embedded in an iFrame.  I tried to embed the Ferguson Twitter map into this post (because it is really cool looking), and it really slowed down page loading, and the script seemed to get stuck at times.
  6. Sui, Daniel. “Opportunities and Impediments for Open GIS.” Transactions in GIS, 18.1 (2014): 1-24.

A Video on Browser Extensions

I thought we’d try something new on ACRL TechConnect, so I recorded a fifteen-minute video discussing general use cases for browser extensions and some specifics of Google Chrome extensions.

The video mentions my WikipeDPLA post on this blog and walks through some slides I presented at a Code4Lib Northern California event.

If you’re looking for another good extension example in libraryland, Stephen Schor of New York Public Library recently wrote extensions for Chrome and Firefox that improve the appearance and utility of the Library of Congress’ EAD documentation. The Chrome extension uses the same content script approach as my silly example in the video. It’s a good demonstration of how you can customize a site you don’t control using the power of browser add-ons.

Have you found a use case for browser add-ons at your library? Let us know in the comments!

Biohackerspace, DIYbio, and Libraries

“Demonstrating DNA extraction” on Flickr

What Is a Biohackerspace?

A biohackerspace is a community laboratory that is open to the public where people are encouraged to learn about and experiment with biotechnology. Like a makerspace, a biohackerspace provides people with tools that are usually not available at home. A makerspace offers making and machining tools such as a 3D printer, a CNC (computer numerically controlled) milling machine, a vinyl cutter, and a laser cutter. A biohackerspace, however, contains tools such as microscopes, Petri dishes, freezers, and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) machines, which are often found in a wet lab setting. Some of these tools are unfamiliar to many. For example, a PCR machine amplifies a segment of DNA and creates many copies of a particular DNA sequence. A CNC milling machine carves, cuts, and drills materials such as wood, hard plastic, and metal according to the design entered into a computer. Both a makerspace and a biohackerspace provide access to these tools to individuals, which are usually cost-prohibitive to own.

Genspace in Brooklyn (http://genspace.org/) is the first biohackerspace in the United States founded in 2010 by molecular biologist Ellen Jorgenson. Since then, more biohackerspaces have opened, such as BUGSS (Baltimore Underground Science Space, http://www.bugssonline.org/) in Baltimore, MD, BioLogik Labs (https://www.facebook.com/BiologikLabs) in Norfolk, VA, BioCurious in Sunnyvale, CA, Berkeley BioLabs (http://berkeleybiolabs.com/) in Berkeley, CA, Biotech and Beyond (http://biotechnbeyond.com/) in San Diego, CA, and BioHive (http://www.biohive.net/) in Seattle, WA.

What Do people Do in a Biohackerpsace?

Just as people in a makerspace work with computer code, electronics, plastic, and other materials for DYI-manufacturing, people in a biohackerspace tinker with bacteria, cells, and DNA. A biohackersapce allows people to tinker with and make biological things outside of the institutional biology lab setting. They can try activities such as splicing DNA or reprogramming bacteria.1 The projects that people pursue in a biohackerspace vary ranging from making bacteria that glow in the dark to identifying the neighbor who fails to pick up after his or her dog. Surprisingly enough, these are not as difficult or complicate as we imagine.2 Injecting a luminescent gene into bacteria can yield the bacteria that glow in the dark. Comparing DNA collected from various samples of dog excrement and finding a match can lead to identifying the guilty neighbor’s dog.3 Other possible projects at a biohackerspace include finding out if an organic food item from a supermarket is indeed organic, creating bacteria that will decompose plastic, checking if a certain risky gene is present in your body. An investigational journalist may use her or his biohacking skills to verify certain evidence. An environmentalist can measure the pollution level of her neighborhood and find out if a particular pollutant exceeds the legal limit.

Why Is a Biohackerpsace Important?

A biohackerspace democratizes access to biotechnology equipment and space and enables users to share their findings. In this regard, a biohakerspace is comparable to the open-source movement in computer programming. Both allow people to solve the problems that matter to them. Instead of pursing a scientific breakthrough, biohackers look for solutions to the problems that are small but important. By contrast, large institutions, such as big pharmaceutical companies, may not necessarily pursue solutions to such problems if those solutions are not sufficiently profitable. For example, China experienced a major food safety incident in 2008 involving melamine-contaminated milk and infant formula. It costs thousands of dollars to test milk for the presence of melamine in a lab. After reading about the incident, Meredith Patterson, a notable biohacker who advocates citizen science, started working on an alternative test, which will cost only a dollar and can be done in a home kitchen.4 To solve the problem, she planned to splice a glow-in-the-dark jellyfish gene into the bacteria that turns milk into yogurt and then add a biochemical sensor that detects melamine, all in her dining room. If the milk turns green when combined with this mixture, that milk contains melamine.

The DIYbio movement refers to the new trend of individuals and communities studying molecular and synthetic biology and biotechnology without being formally affiliated with an academic or corporate institution.5 DIYbio enthusiasts pursue most of their projects as a hobby. Some of those projects, however, hold the potential to solve serious global problems. One example is the inexpensive melamine test in a milk that we have seen above. Biopunk, a book by Marcus Wohlsen, also describes another DIYbio approach to develop an affordable handheld thermal cycler that rapidly replicates DNA as an inexpensive diagnostics for the developing world.6 Used in conjunction with a DNA-reading chip and a few vials containing primers for a variety of disease, this device called ‘LavaAmp’ can quickly identify diseases that break out in remote rural areas.

The DIYbio movement and a biohackerspace pioneer a new realm of science literacy, i.e. doing science. According to Meredith Patterson, scientific literacy is not understanding science but doing science. In her 2010 talk at the UCLA Center for Society and Genetics’ symposium, “Outlaw Biology? Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio,” Patterson argued, “scientific literacy empowers everyone who possesses it to be active contributors to their own health care; the quality of their food, water, and air; their very interactions with their own bodies and the complex world around them.”7

How Can Libraries Be Involved?

While not all librarians agree that a makerspace is an endeavor suitable for a library, more libraries have been creating a makerspace and offering makerspace-related programs for their patrons in recent years. Maker programs support hands-on learning in the STEAM education and foster creative and innovative thinking through tinkering and prototyping activities. They also introduce new skills to students and the public for whom the opportunities to learn about those things are still rare. Those new skills – 3D modeling, 3D printing, and computer programming – enrich students’ learning experience, provide new teaching tools for instructors, and help adults to find employment or start their own businesses. Those skills can also be used to solve everyday problem such as an creating inexpensive prosthetic limb or custom parts that are need to repair household items.

However, creating a makerspace or running a maker program in a library setting is not an easy task. Libraries often lack sufficient funding to purchase various equipment for a makerspace as well as the staff who are capable of developing appropriate maker programs. This means that in order to create and operate a successful makerspace, a library must make a significant upfront investment in equipment and staff education and training. For this reason, the importance of the accurate needs-assessment and the development of programs appropriate and useful to library patrons cannot be over-empahsized.

A biohackerspace requires a wet laboratory setting, where chemicals, drugs, and a variety of biological matter are tested and analyzed in liquid solutions or volatile phases. Such a laboratory requires access to water, proper plumbing and ventilation, waste disposal, and biosafety protocols. Considering these issues, it will probably take a while for any library to set up a biohackerspace.

This should not dissuade libraries from being involved with biohackerspace-related activities, however. Instead of setting up a biohackerspace, libraries can invite speakers to talk about DIYbio and biohacking to raise awareness about this new area of making to library patrons. Libraries can also form a partnership with a local biohackerspace in a variety of ways. Libraries can co-host or cross-promote relevant programs at biohackerspaces and libraries to facilitate the cross-pollination of ideas. A libraries’ reading collection focused on biohacking could be greatly useful. Libraries can contribute their expertise in grant writing or donate old computing equipment to biohackerspaces. Libraries can offer their expertise in digital publishing and archiving to help biohackerspaces publish and archive their project outcome and research findings.

Is a Biohackerpsace Safe?

The DIYbio movement recognized the potential risk in biohacking early on and created codes of conduct in 2011. The Ask a Biosafety Expert (ABE) service at DIY.org provides free biosafety advice from a panel of volunteer experts, along with many biosafety resources. Some biohackerspaces have an advisory board of professional scientists who review the projects that will take place at their spaces. Most biohackerspaces meet the Biosafety Level 1 criteria set out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Democratization of Biotechnology

While the DIYbio movement and biohackerspaces are still in the early stage of development, they hold great potential to drive future innovation in biotechnology and life sciences. The DIYbio movement and biohackerspaces try to transform ordinary people into citizen scientists, empower them to come up with solutions to everyday problems, and encourage them to share those solutions with one another. Not long ago, we had mainframe computers that were only accessible to a small number of professional computer scientists locked up at academic or corporate labs. Now personal computers are ubiquitous, and many professional and amateur programmers know how to write code to make a personal computer do the things they would like it to do. Until recently, manufacturing was only possible on a large scale through factories. Many makerspaces that started in recent years, however, have made it possible for the public to create a model on a computer and 3D print a physical object based on that model at a much lower cost and on a much smaller scale. It remains to be seen if the DIYbio movement and biohackerspaces will bring similar change to biotechnology.


  1. Boustead, Greg. “The Biohacking Hobbyist.” Seed, December 11, 2008. http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/the_biohacking_hobbyist/.
  2. Bloom, James. “The Geneticist in the Garage.” The Guardian, March 18, 2009. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2009/mar/19/biohacking-genetics-research.
  3. Landrain, Thomas, Morgan Meyer, Ariel Martin Perez, and Remi Sussan. “Do-It-Yourself Biology: Challenges and Promises for an Open Science and Technology Movement.” Systems and Synthetic Biology 7, no. 3 (September 2013): 115–26. doi:10.1007/s11693-013-9116-4.
  4. Wohlsen, Marcus. Biopunk: Solving Biotech’s Biggest Problems in Kitchens and Garages. Penguin, 2011., p.38-39.
  5. Jorgensen, Ellen D., and Daniel Grushkin. “Engage With, Don’t Fear, Community Labs.” Nature Medicine 17, no. 4 (2011): 411–411. doi:10.1038/nm0411-411.
  6. Wohlsen, Marcus. Biopunk: Solving Biotech’s Biggest Problems in Kitchens and Garages. Penguin, 2011. p. 56.
  7. A Biopunk Manifesto by Meredith Patterson, 2010. http://vimeo.com/18201825.

Using Grunt to Automate Repetitive Tasks

Riding a tangent from my previous post on web performance, here is an introduction to Grunt, a JavaScript task runner.

Why would we use Grunt? It’s become a common tool for web development as it puts together a number of tedious but necessary steps for optimizing a website. However, “task runner” is intentionally generic; Grunt isn’t specifically limited to websites, it can move and modify files in manifold ways.

Initial Setup

Unfortunately, virtually no operating system comes prepared to use Grunt out of the box. Grunt is written in  Node.js and thus require a few install steps. The good news is that Node is cross-platform; in my experience, it works better on Windows than most other programming frameworks.

  • Install Node
  • Ensure that the node and npm commands are on your path by running node --version and npm --version
    • If not, try a web search like “add node to path {{operating system}}”, it takes at most editing a single line of a particular file
  • Install Grunt globally with npm install -g grunt-cli
  • Ensure Grunt is on your path (grunt --version) and, again, search for an answer if not
  • Inside your project, run npm install grunt to install a local copy of grunt (it’ll appear in a folder named “node_modules”)

We’re ready to run! Let’s do a basic example.

First Example: Basic Web App Optimization

Say we have a simple website: there’s an index.html page, a stylesheet in a “css” subfolder, and a script in a “js” subfolder. First, let’s define what we want to accomplish. We want to: keep a full-size, easily readable copy of all our code while also building minified versions of both the CSS and JS. To do this, we’ll use three plugins: cssmin, uglify, and copy. This whole example is available on GitHub; even if you don’t use git, you can download a zip archive of the files.

First, inside our project, We run npm install grunt-contrib-cssmin grunt-contrib-uglify grunt-contrib-copy. These plugins are now installed in a “nodemodules” folder, but Grunt still needs to know _how to use them. It needs to know what tasks manipulate what files and other options. We provide this information in a file named “Gruntfile.js” in the root of our project. Here’s our initial one:

module.exports = function(grunt) {
    // this tells Grunt about the 3 plugins we installed 
        // our configuration will go here 
    // we're going to want to run cssmin, uglify, & copy together 
    // so let's group them under a single "build" task 
    grunt.registerTask('build', ['cssmin', 'uglify', 'copy']);

For each task, there’ll be a section inside initConfig with its settings. For cssmin, the setup is nested a few layers but is really just a single line of code. Under a cssmin property we specify a target name, which can be anything. Targets allow us to have multiple configurations for a single task, which is handy in more complex projects but often unneeded. Under our target, which we’ll name “minify”, there’s a files property where we associate an array of input files with a single output file. This makes concatenating multiple stylesheets easy.

cssmin: {
  minify: {
    files: {
      'build/css/main.css': ['css/main.css']
}, // trailing comma since we'll add another section

Uglify’s setup is identical. We’ll name the target the same and only change the paths inside the files property.

uglify: {
  minify: {
    files: {
      'build/js/main.js': ['js/main.js']
}, // again, trailing comma, we add more below

While cssmin handles stylesheets and uglify handles JavaScript, our index.html only needs to be copied and not modified.1 See if you can write out the copy task’s settings by yourself, mimicking what we’ve already done.

Now we run grunt build in our command prompt and some messages tell us about each task’s status. Look in the “build” folder which appears after we ran the command. Far smaller, optimized versions of our main CSS and JS files are in there.

Great! We’ve accomplished our goals. But we must run grunt build over and over each time we want to remake our optimized assets, switching between our code editor and command prompt each time. If we’re doing a lot of piecemeal editing, this is most annoying. Instead, let’s use another plugin by running npm install grunt-contrib-watch to get the “watch” task and load it with the line grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-watch').2 Then, write this configuration:

watch: {
    minify: {
      files: ['\*.html', 'css/\*.css', 'js/\*.js'],
      tasks: ['build']

Watch has just two intuitive parameters in its configuration; an array of files to watch and an array of tasks to execute when those files change. The asterisks are wildcards, so unlike our settings above this stanza isn’t dependent on exact file names. Now, by running grunt watch in our command prompt, optimized assets are magically constructed every time we save changes to a file. We can edit in peace without continually switching between the command line and our editor. Better yet, watch can work with a local development server to reload new versions of files upon every edit.3 The right combination of tasks can yield super efficient workflows where we edit and view results without worrying about optimizations made behind the scenes.

More Advanced: Portable Header

While the above is suitable for much small-scale web development, Grunt can handle far more complex situations. For example, I wrote a portable HTML header which can be inserted onto various vendor websites such as LibGuides or an A to Z list. The project’s Gruntfile is 159 lines long and makes use of ten Grunt plugins.

I won’t go into detail to explain how each Grunt tasks’ settings work, but I will outline what’s happening. A “sass” task compiles SCSS code into minified CSS that browser can understand using an external program. A couple of linting tools, jshint and scss-lint, check files against code quality heuristics. Our good friends copy and uglify are back doing their job, only this time they’ve joined by htmlmin which handles the index page. “String-replace” is an example of a multi-target task; its first target searches over a series of files for strings wrapped in double-curly braces like “{{example}}”. It then swaps out these placeholders with values specified in another file. The second takes the entire contents of a stylesheet and a script and inlines them into the main HTML.

That’s a lot of labor being handling by computer programs instead of humans. While passing a couple files through tools that remove comments and whitespace isn’t tough, the many steps in constructing an optimized HTML header from several files provide a good demonstration of Grunt’s value. While it took me some time to configure everything properly, the combined “build” task for this project has probably run hundreds of times and saved me hours of work. Not only that, because of the linting and minification, the final product is doubtless more high-quality than I could assemble manually.

The length and complexity of my Gruntfile points to one of the tougher pieces of using Grunt heavily; the order and delegated responsibilities of numerous tasks is tricky to coordinate properly. Throughout my Gruntfile, there are comments indicating when particular tasks run because running them out of order would either be fruitless or cause an error. For instance, the “string-replace” task’s “inline” target must run after those other files have been minified, otherwise the minification serves no purpose (the inlined code would be full size).

Similarly, coordinating which tasks move which files has been a constant headache for me in many projects. While the “copy” task moves images to the build folder, the “tpl” target of the “string-replace” task moves everything else. But I could’ve also used the uglify or sass tasks to move files! Since every task can potentially move the files it operates upon, it’s difficult to keep track of where a file is at a particular time in the workflow. The best way to debug these issues is to run multi-task aliases like build one at a time; first run uglify, then run cssmin, then run htmlmin… checking the state of files in between each to make sure that changes are occurring as anticipated.

Use Cases Abound

I use Grunt in almost all my projects, whether they’re web development or not. I use Grunt to copy my shell customizations into place, so that when I’m working on a new one I can just run grunt watch and rely on the changes being synched into place. I use Grunt to build Chrome extensions which require extra packaging steps before they can be pushed into the Chrome Web Store. I use Grunt in our catalog’s customized pages to minify code and also to check for potential errors. As an additional step, Grunt can be hooked up to deploy processes such that once a successful build is made the new files are pushed off to a remote server.

Grunt can be used to construct almost any workflow from a series of discrete pieces. Compiling some EAD finding aids into an HTML website via XSLT. Processing vendor MARC files with a PyMARC script and then uploading them into an ILS. Anything that can be scripted could be tied to Grunt tasks with a plug-in like grunt-exec, which executes arbitrary shell commands. However, there is a limit to what it’s sensible to do with Grunt. These last two examples are arguably better accomplished with shell scripts. Grunt is at its best when its great suite of plug-ins are relied upon and those tend to perform web-specific tasks. Grunt also requires at least a modicum of comfort with coding. It falls into an odd space, because while the configuration file is indeed JavaScript, it reads like a series of lists of settings, files, and ordered tasks. If you have more complex needs that involve if-then conditions and custom scripts, a lot of Grunt’s utility is negated. On the other hand, for those who would rather avoid code and the command line, options like the CodeKit app make more sense.

The Grunt site’s Getting Started and Sample Gruntfile pages are helpful sources of documentation.

A Beginner’s Guide to Grunt: Redux — a nice, updated overview. Some of the steps here are unnecessary for beginners, however, as they require a lot of files and structure. That’s great for experienced developers in the long run, because everything is smaller and more modular, but too much setup for simple projects.

I find myself constantly consulting the readme’s for various grunt plugins to figure out how they work, since their options are not necessarily discoverable otherwise. A quick way to pop open the home page of a package is by running npm home grunt-contrib-uglify (inserting the plugin name of your choice) which will open the registered home page of the package, often on GitHub.

Finally, it’s worth mentioning Gulp, a competing JavaScript task runner. Gulp is the same type of tool as Grunt (you wouldn’t use both in a project) but follows a different design philosophy. In short, Gulp tends to run faster due to its design and setting it up looks more like code and less like a configuration file, which some people prefer.


  1. There’s actually another great plugin, grunt-contrib-htmlmin, which minifies HTML. Its settings are only a little bit more involved than the copy task, so trying to configure htmlmin would make another nice exercise for those wanting to build on this post.
  2. Writing grunt.loadNpmTasks for each task we add to a complex Gruntfile gets tiresome. It takes a bit more initial work—we need to run npm init before anything else, fill in some prompts, and append --save-dev to all your npm install commands—so I decided to skip it in this intro, but we can use load-grunt-tasks to get this down to a single line that doesn’t need to be updated each time a new plugin is added.
  3. The appropriate setting is options.livereload as documented here. While our scenario doesn’t quite capture how time-saving this can be, grunt watch shines when working with a language that compiles to CSS like SASS. A process like “edit SASS, compile CSS, reload web page, view changes” becomes simply “edit SASS, view changes” because the intermediary stages are triggered by grunt watch.

Trapped in the Glass Cage

Imagine this scenario: you don’t normally have a whole lot to do at your job. It’s a complex job, sure, but day-to-day you’re spending most of your time monitoring a computer and typing in data. But one day, something goes wrong. The computer fails. You are suddenly asked to perform basic job functions that the computer normally takes care of for you, and you don’t really remember well how to do them. In the mean time, the computer is screaming at you about an error, and asking for additional inputs. How well do you function?

The Glass Cage

In Nicholas Carr’s new book The Glass Cage, this scenario is the frightening result of malfunctions with airplanes, and in the cases he describes, result in crashes and massive loss of life. As librarians, we are thankfully not responsible on a daily basis for the lives of hundreds of people, but like pilots, we too have automated much of our work and depend on systems that we often have no control over. What happens when a database we rely on goes down–say, all OCLC services go down for a few hours in December when many students are trying to get a few last sources for their papers? Are we able to take over seamlessly from the machines in guiding students?

Carr is not against automation, nor indeed against technology in general, though this is a criticism frequently leveled at him. But he is against the uncritical abnegation of our faculties to technology companies. In his 2011 book The Shallows, he argues that offloading memory to the internet and apps makes us more shallow, distractable thinkers. While I didn’t buy all his arguments (after all, Socrates didn’t approve of off-loading memory to writing since it would make us all shallow, distractable thinkers), it was thought-provoking. In The Glass Cage, he focuses on automation specifically, using autopilot technologies as the focal point–“the glass cage” is the name pilots use for cockpits since they are surrounded by screens. Besides the danger of not knowing what to do when the automated systems fail, we create potentially more dangerous situations by not paying attention to what choices automated systems make. As Carr writes, “If we don’t understand the commercial, political, intellectual, and ethical motivations of the people writing our software, or the limitations inherent in automated data processing, we open ourselves to manipulation.” 1

We have automated many mundane functions of library operation that have no real effect, or a positive effect. For instance, no longer do students sign out books by writing their names on paper cards which are filed away in drawers. While some mourn for the lost history of who had out the book–or even the romance novel scenario of meeting the other person who checks out the same books–by tracking checkouts in a secure computerized system we can keep better track of where books are, as well as maintain privacy by not showing who has checked out each book. And when the checkout system goes down, it is easy to figure out how to keep things going in the interim. We can understand on an instinctual level how such a system works and what it does. Like a traditional computerized library catalog, we know more or less how data gets in the system, and how data gets out. We have more access points to the data, but it still follows its paper counterpart in creation and structure.

Over the past decade, however, we have moved away more and more from those traditional systems. We want to provide students with systems that align with their (and our) experience outside libraries. Discovery layers take traditional library data and transform it with indexes and algorithms to create a new, easier way to find research material. If traditional automated systems, like autopilot systems, removed the physical effort of moving between card catalogs, print indexes, and microfilm machines, these new systems remove much of the mental effort of determining where to search for that type of information and the particular skills needed to search the relevant database. That is a surely a useful and good development. When one is immersed in a research question, the system shouldn’t get in the way.

Dr. Screen

That said, the nearly wholesale adoption of discovery systems provided by vendors leaves academic librarians in an awkward position. We can find a parallel in medicine. Carr relates the rush into electronic medical records (EMR) starting in 2004 with the Heath Information Technology Adoption Initiative. This meant huge amounts of money available for digitizing records, as well as a huge windfall for health information companies. While an early study by the RAND corporation (funded in part by those health information companies) indicated enormous promise from electronic medical records to save money and improve care. 2 But in actual fact, these systems did not do everything they were supposed to do. All the data that was supposed to be easy to share between providers was locked up in proprietary systems. 3 In addition, other studies showed that these systems did not merely substitute automated record-keeping for manual, they changed the way medicine was practiced. 4 EMR systems provide additional functions beyond note-taking, such as checklists and prompts with suggestions for questions and tests, which in turn create additional and more costly bills, test requests, and prescriptions. 5 The EMR systems change the dynamic between doctor and patient as well. The systems encourage the use of boilerplate text that lacks the personalized story of an individual patient, and the inability to flip through pages tended to diminish the long view of a patient’s entire medical history. 6 The presence of the computer in the room and the constant multitasking of typing notes into a computer means that doctors cannot be fully present with the patient. 7 With the constant presence of the EMR and its checklists, warnings, and prompts, doctors lose the ability to gain intuition and new understandings that the EMR could never provide. 8

The reference librarian has an interaction with patrons that is not all that different from doctors with patients (though as with pilots, the stakes are usually quite different). We work one on one with people on problems that are often undefined or misunderstood at the beginning of the interaction, and work towards a solution through conversation and cursory examinations of resources. We either provide the resource that solves the problem (e.g. the prescription), or make sure the patron has the tools available to solve problem over time (e.g. diet and exercise recommendations). We need to use subtle queues of body language and tone of voice to see how things are going, and use instinctive knowledge to understand if there is a deeper but unexpressed problem. We need our tools at hand to work with patrons, but we need to be present and use our own experience and judgment in knowing the appropriate tool to use. That means that we have to understand how the tool we have works, and ideally have some way of controlling it. Unfortunately that has not always been the case with vendor discovery systems. We are at the mercy of the system, and reactions to this vary. Some people avoid using it at all costs and won’t teach using the discovery system, which means that students are even less likely to use it, preferring the easier to get to even if less robust Google search. Or, if students do use it, they may still be missing out on the benefits of having academic librarians available–people who have spent years developing domain knowledge and the best resources available at the library, which knowledge can’t be replaced by an algorithm. Furthermore, the vendor platforms and content only interoperate to the extent the vendors are willing to work together, for which many of them have a disincentive since they want their own index to come out on top.

Enter the ODI

Just as doctors may have given up some of their professional ability and autonomy to proprietary databases of patient information, academic librarians seem to have done something similar with discovery systems. But the NISO Open Discovery Initiative (ODI) has potential to make the black box more transparent. This group has been working for two years to develop a set of practices that aim to make some aspects of discovery even across providers, and so give customers and users more control in understanding what they are seeing and ensure that indexes are complete. The Recommended Practice addresses some (but not all) major concerns in discovery service platforms. Essentially it covers requirements for metadata that content providers must provide to discovery service providers and to libraries, as well as best practices for content providers and discovery service providers. The required core metadata is followed by the “enriched” content which is optional–keywords, abstract, and full text. (Though the ODI makes it clear that including these is important–one might argue that the abstract is essential). 9 Discovery service providers are in turn strongly encouraged to make the content their repositories hold clear to their customers, and the metadata required for this. Discovery service providers should follow suggested practices to ensure “fair linking”, specifically to not use business relationships as a ranking or ordering consideration, and allow libraries to set their own preferences about choice of providers and wording for links. ODI suggests a fairly simple set of usage statistics that should be provided and exactly what they should measure. 10

While this all sets a good baseline, what is out of scope for ODI is equally important. It “does not address issues related to performance or features of the discovery services, as these are inherently business and design decisions guided by competitive market forces.” 11 Performance and features includes the user interface and experience, the relevancy ranking algorithms, APIs, specific mechanisms for fair linking, and data exchange (which is covered by other protocols). The last section of the Recommended Practice covers some of those in “Recommended Next Steps”. One of those that jumps out is the “on-demand lookup by discovery service users” 12, which suggests that users should be able to query the discovery service to determine “…whether or not a particular collection, journal, or book is included in the indexed content”13–seemingly the very goal of discovery in the first place.

“Automation of Intellect”

We know that many users only look at the first page of results for the resource they want. If we don’t know what results should be there, or how they get there, we are leaving users at the mercy of the tool. Disclosure of relevancy rankings is a major piece of transparency that ODI leaves out, and without understanding or controlling that piece of discovery, I think academic librarians are still caught in the trap of the glass cage–or become the chauffeur in the age of the self-driving car. This has been happening in all professional fields as machine learning algorithms and processing power to crunch big data sets improve. Medicine, finance, law, business, and information technology itself have been increasingly automated as software can run algorithms to analyze scenarios that in the past would require a senior practitioner. 14 So what’s the problem with this? If humans are fallible (and research shows that experts are equally if not more fallible), why let them touch anything? Carr argues that “what makes us smart is not our ability to pull facts from documents.…It’s our ability to make sense of things…” 15 We can grow to trust the automated system’s algorithms beyond our own experience and judgment, and lose the possibility of novel insights. 16

This is not to say that discovery systems do not solve major problems or that libraries should not use them. They do, and as much as practical libraries should make discovery as easy as possible. But as this ODI Recommended Practice makes clear, much remains a secret business decision for discovery service vendors, and thus something over which academic librarian can exercise control only though their dollars in choosing a platform and their advocacy in working with vendors to ensure they understand the system and it does what they need.


  1. Nicholas Carr, The Glass Cage: Automation and Us (New York: Norton, 2014), 208.
  2. Carr, 93.
  3. Carr, 95.
  4. Carr, 97.
  5. Carr, 98.
  6. Carr, 101-102.
  7. Carr, 103.
  8. Carr, 105-106.
  9.  National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Open Discovery Initiative (ODI) Working Group, Open Discovery Initiative: Promoting Transparency in Discovery (Baltimore: NISO, 2014): 25-26.
  10. NISO ODI, 25-27.
  11. NISO ODI, 3.
  12. NISO ODI, 32.
  13. NISO ODI, 32.
  14. Carr, 115-117.
  15. Carr, 121.
  16. Carr, 124.

Themes from the Knight Foundation’s News Challenge Grant Competition

This year’s Knight Foundation’s News Challenge project grant competition focused on the premise that libraries are “key for improving Americans’ ability to know about and to be involved with what takes place around them.”  While the Knight Foundation’s mission traditionally focuses on journalism and media, the Foundation has funded several projects related to libraries in the past, such as projects enabling Chicago Public Library and New York Public Library to lend Wi-Fi hot-spots to patrons, Jason Griffey’s LibraryBox Project, and a DPLA project to clarify intellectual property rights for libraries sharing digital materials.  Winners receive a portion of around $5 million in funding, and typical awards range between $200,000 and $400,000, with some additional funding available for smaller (~$35,000) start-up projects.

The News Challenge this year called for ideas that “leverage libraries as a platform to build more knowledgeable communities”.  There were over 600 proposals in this years’ News Challenge (all of which you can find here), and 42 proposals made it into the semi-finals, with winners to be announced January 30th, 2015.  While not all of the proposed ideas specifically involve digital technologies, most propose the creation of some kind of application or space where library users can access and learn about new technologies and digital skills.

Notably, while the competition was open to anyone (not just libraries or librarians), around 30 of the 42 finalist projects have at least one librarian or library organization sponsor on the team.1  Nearly all the projects involve the intersection of multiple disciplines, including history, journalism, engineering, education/instructional design, music, and computer science.  Three general themes seem to have emerged from this year’s News Challenge finalists:  1) maker spaces tailored to specific community needs; 2) libraries innovating new ways to publish, curate, and lend DRM-free ebooks and other content; and 3) facilitating the preservation of born-digital user-generated histories.

MakerSpaces Made for Communities

Given how popular makerspaces have become in libraries2 over the past several years, it’s not surprising to see that many News Challenge proposals  seek funding for the space and/or equipment to create library makerspaces.  What is interesting about many of these makerspace proposals is that many of them highlight the need to develop makerspaces that are specifically relevant to to the interests and needs of the local communities a library serves.

For example, one proposal out of Philadelphia – Libraries as Hip-Hop Techspace – proposes equipping a library space with tools for learning about and creating digital music via hip-hop.  Another proposal out of Vermont focuses on teaching digital literacies and skillsets via makerspace technologies in rural communities.  Of course, many proposals include 3D printers, but what stands out about proposals that have made it through to the finals (like this one that proposes 3D printed books for blind children, for example, or this one that proposes a tiny makerspace for a small community) are those that emphasize how the project would use 3D printing and associated technologies in an innovative way that is still meaningful to specific community learning needs and interests.

One theme that runs through these maker-related proposals, whether they come from cities or rural locations, is the relevance of these spaces to the business and economic needs of the communities in which they are proposed.  Several entries point out the potential for library maker-spaces to be entrepreneurial incubators designed to enable users to develop, prototype, and market their own software or other products.  Many of these proposals specifically mention how the current “digital divide” is, at its heart, an economic divide – such as this maker space proposal from San Jose, which argues that “In order for the next generation of Silicon Valley’s leaders to rise from its neighborhoods, access to industry knowledge and tools should begin early to inspire participation, experimentation, and collaboration – essential skills of the thriving economy in the area.”  Creativity and experimentation are increasingly essential skills in the labor force, and these proposals highlight how a library’s role in fostering creative expression ultimately provides an economic benefit.

Publishing and Promoting DRM-Free Content

Like maker spaces, libraries serving as publishers is not a new trend.3  What is interesting about Knight Foundation proposals that that center on this topic are the projects that position libraries as publishers of content that otherwise would struggle to get published in the current marketplace, while recognizing the desire for libraries to more easily lend digital content to their users.

A great example of this is a proposal by the developers of JukePop to leverage “libraries’ ebook catalogs so they become THE publishing platform for indie authors looking to be discovered by the most avid readers”  JukePop is a publishing platform for indie authors that enables distribution of ebooks – often in serial form – to readers who can provide feedback to authors.  Downloads from library websites are DRM-free.4 Other proposals – like this proposal for improving the licensing models of indie games – also have a core value of figuring out new ways to streamline user access to content while providing benefits and compensation to creators.

A somewhat different – and super interesting – manifestation of this theme is the Gitenberg project, which proposes utilizing Github as a platform for version control to enable libraries to contribute to improving digital manuscripts and metadata for Project Gutenberg.  The project already has a repository that you can start forking from and making pull requests to improve Project Gutenberg data.

Telling Community Stories through Born-Digital Media Preservation

Libraries and archives have always held the role of preserving the cultural heritage of the communities they serve, but face challenges in easily  gathering, preserving, and curating born-digital media.  While individual users capture huge amounts of media on mobile devices, as the Open Archive proposal puts it, “the most common destination for this media is on social media platforms that can chill free speech and are not committed to privacy, authentication, or long-term preservation.”  StoryCorps, for example, proposes the creation of better tools and distributed education for libraries and archives to record and preserve diverse community stories through interviews.  CurateScape “seeks to remake public life through a distributed and participatory network of digital storytelling,” emphasizing the need for technology that can be adopted by libraries to document local community histories.  The Internet Archive proposes more streamlined tools and frameworks to enable users to more easily submit content for preservation to archive.org.  The Open Archive project, also associated with the Internet Archive, emphasizes empowering users through their local libraries and archives to capture and submit their media to community collections.  Recognizing that there is still an enormous amount of pre-digital content waiting to be preserved New York Public Library seeks to “democratize the digitization process” through mobile and distributed digitization tools.

The element that seems to motivate many of these proposals is an emphasis on unique, community-centric collections that tell a story.  They focus on the importance of local institutions as connection points for users to share their content, and their experiences, with the world, while also documenting the context surrounding those experiences.  Libraries and archives are uniquely positioned as the logical place to document local histories in the interest of long-term preservation, but need better solutions.  It’s definitely exciting to see the energy behind these proposals and the innovative solutions that are on the horizon.

Start Thinking about Next Year!

Full disclosure:  I was part of a team that submitted a proposal to the News Challenge, and while we’ve been notified it won’t be funded, it was a fantastic learning experience.  I definitely made some great connections with other Challenge participants (many tweets have been exchanged!) – and it’s not surprising to me that even in a competition, library people find ways to work together and collaborate.  While winners for this years’ competition won’t be announced until January 30th, and the specific “challenge” prompt for the next competition won’t be identified until late next year (and may not be specifically library-related), I would definitely encourage anyone with a good, relevant idea to think about applying to next years’ News Challenge.

There’s also some interesting stuff to be found in the “Inspiration” section of the News Challenge, where people could submit articles, discussions, and ideas relevant to this year’s Challenge.  One of the articles linked to in that section is the transcript of a 2013 speech by author Neil Gaiman, which features a lot of lovely bits of motivation for every library enthusiast – like this one, which I think captures a central thread running through almost every News Challenge proposal:  “A library is a place that is a repository of information and gives every citizen equal access to it… It’s a community space. It’s a place of safety, a haven from the world. It’s a place with librarians in it. What the libraries of the future will be like is something we should be imagining now.”


  1. The projects that do not have direct library/librarian involvement listed on the project team – including “Cowbird” (https://newschallenge.org/challenge/libraries/evaluation/building-libraries-of-human-experience-transforming-america-s-libraries-into-community-storytelling-centers-for-the-digital-age) and “Libraries as Hip-Hop TechSpace” (https://newschallenge.org/challenge/libraries/refinement/libraries-as-hip-hop-techspace) are definitely interesting to read.  I do think they provide a unique perspective on how the ethos and mission of libraries is perceived by those not necessarily embedded in the profession – and I’m encouraged that these proposals do show a fairly clear understanding of the directions libraries are moving in.
  2. http://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/?p=2340
  3. See http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2014/03/publishing/the-public-library-as-publisher and http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/3336451.0017.207
  4. Santa Clara County Library district is a development partner with JukePop – you can check out their selection of JukePop-sourced DRM-free titles available here:  http://www.sccl.org/Browse/eBooks-Downloads/Episodic-Fiction