Orr, R. H. (1973). Measuring the goodness of library services: a general framework for considering quantitative measures. Journal of Documentation, 29 (3), 315-332.
While Orr’s model (depicted above) has not been utilized in any studies published in the last two decades, it is one of the earliest academic library evaluation models and it provides a useful way of conceptualizing different definitions of library value. It is essentially a systems based evaluation model in that inputs (resources) are linked to processes, which are then linked to outputs (beneficial effects). However, it also incorporates a library’s capability to provide services, its users’ demands for service, and how user utilize these services. Orr’s model is useful for library value research because it separates the concepts of quality, which is related to the library’s capability to provide resources and services, and value, which is related to the library’s beneficial effects on its users and parent institution. Because of this distinction, Orr was one of the first to identify that library goodness/value varied depending on whether the library’s services and resources are being judged from the user or institutional perspective. Users would be interested in library quality, but would be less concerned with the financial value of the library.