¶ 1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 “The work of actively opposing racism by advocating for changes in political, economic, and social life. Anti-racism tends to be an individualized approach, and set up in opposition to individual racist behaviors and impacts.” (Race Forward 2015)
¶ 2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 1 Antiracism is an approach to racial equity that begins with the assumption that all races are equal and not in need of development as a whole. It suggests that racial injustices are a result of racist policies, intentional or unintentional, and that racial equity can only come through deliberate changes in political, economic, and social structures. Antiracism implies something beyond being “not racist”, and requires a more active opposition to racist structures through action.
¶ 3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 “An anti-racist is someone who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing antiracist ideas. This includes the expression of ideas that racial groups are equals and do not need developing, and supporting policies that reduce racial inequity.” (Racial Equity Tools 2020; summarized from Kendi 2019)
¶ 4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 Colonialism refers to domination through economic, political, and social policies or ideologies, especially by a non-indigenous people over indigenous, minority, or marginalized populations.
¶ 7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 In the Americas, colonialism refers to the invasion and large-scale theft of Indigenous lands by European powers, and the continuing domination of those lands and peoples through economic, political, and social policies or ideologies. (adapted from Waziyatan 2014)
¶ 8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 Can refer to a range of differences between people that may include race, gender, sexual orientation, class, age, education, religion, language, culture, and physical or cognitive abilities. It may also include different ideas, perspectives, and values. In the context of institutions, organizations, or communities, it may refer to representation of these differences within the group, the active presence of different voices and perspectives, or the valuing of these differences as part of the culture. It is a necessary, but not sufficient step towards “Equity.”
¶ 9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 “Equity means fairness and justice and focuses on outcomes that are most appropriate for a given group, recognizing different challenges, needs, and histories. It is distinct from diversity, which can simply mean variety (the presence of individuals with various identities). It is also not equality, or “same treatment,” which doesn’t take differing needs or disparate outcomes into account. Systemic equity involves a robust system and dynamic process consciously designed to create, support and sustain social justice.” (Race Forward 2015)
¶ 10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 A system of oppression that relies on nations exerting power and dominion over another nation or group either by direct territorial acquisitions or indirectly by exerting control over their political, economic, or cultural life.
¶ 11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 1 “Inclusion means an environment in which all individuals are treated fairly and respectfully; are valued for their distinctive skills, experiences, and perspectives; have equal access to resources and opportunities; and can contribute fully to the organization’s success. (Adapted from Society for Human Resources Management, Hewlett Packard, and Ferris State University)” (Office for Diversity, Literacy and Outreach Services 2017)
¶ 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 “Being included within a group or structure. More than simply diversity and quantitative representation, inclusion involves authentic and empowered participation, with a true sense of belonging and full access to opportunities.” (Race Forward 2015)
¶ 13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 “Internalized racism is the situation that occurs in a racist system when a racial group oppressed by racism supports the supremacy and dominance of the dominating group by maintaining or participating in the set of attitudes, behaviors, social structures, and ideologies that undergird the dominating group’s power. It involves four essential and interconnected elements:
¶ 14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 1. Decision-making – Due to racism, people of color do not have the ultimate decision-making power over the decisions that control our lives and resources. As a result, on a personal level, we may think white people know more about what needs to be done for us than we do. On an interpersonal level, we may not support each other’s authority and power – especially if it is in opposition to the dominating racial group. Structurally, there is a system in place that rewards people of color who support white supremacy and power and coerces or punishes those who do not.
¶ 15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 2. Resources – Resources, broadly defined (e.g. money, time, etc), are unequally in the hands and under the control of white people. Internalized racism is the system in place that makes it difficult for people of color to get access to resources for our own communities and to control the resources of our community. We learn to believe that serving and using resources for ourselves and our particular community is not serving “everybody.”
¶ 16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 3. Standards – With internalized racism, the standards for what is appropriate or “normal” that people of color accept are white people’s or Eurocentric standards. We have difficulty naming, communicating and living up to our deepest standards and values, and holding ourselves and each other accountable to them.
¶ 17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 4. Naming the problem – There is a system in place that misnames the problem of racism as a problem of or caused by people of color and blames the disease – emotional, economic, political, etc. – on people of color. With internalized racism, people of color might, for example, believe we are more violent than white people and not consider state-sanctioned political violence or the hidden or privatized violence of white people and the systems they put in place and support.” (Bivens 1995)
¶ 18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 Liberation is the act of freeing people from forms of oppression on the individual and societal levels resulting in “ relationships, societies, communities, organizations, and collective spaces characterized by equity, fairness, and the implementation of systems for the allocation of goods, services, benefits, and rewards that support the full participation of each human and the promotion of their full humanness.” (Love, DeJong, and Hughbanks 2007)
¶ 20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Liberatory practice and work then represent the process of reflection and action combined with engagement in concrete liberation-inducing or liberatory behaviors that lead to societal and individual transformation. (Love, DeJong, and Hughbanks 2007)
¶ 21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 1 Acronym for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and/or Questioning, Intersex, Asexual, Two-Spirit, and the many different affirmative ways in which people choose to self-identify.
¶ 22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 “The term, ‘minoritized,’ unlike ‘minority’ calls attention to the institutional processes through which religious, racial, and cultural groups are rendered into a minority rather than presuming this status based on prior or inherent identity.” (Shalabi 2014)
¶ 23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 Minoritized refers to “the social construction of underrepresentation and subordination in US social institutions.” . . . “Persons are not born into a minority status, nor are they minoritized in every social context (e.g., their families, racially homogenous friendship groups, or places of worship). Instead, they are rendered minorities in particular situations and institutional environments that sustain an overrepresentation of Whiteness” (p.9). (Harper 2012)
¶ 24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 Social justice focuses on power dynamics among different groups of people while acknowledging historical and institutional inequities. It has a vision of a society with equitable distribution of resources, in which “all members are physically and psychologically safe and secure, recognized, and treated with respect.” (Adams, et al. 2016)
¶ 25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 “Researching and addressing the distributions of the social common good through the lens of historical power structures and social norms. Promoting just and equitable outcomes.” (University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development n.d.)
¶ 26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 “A system in which public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms work in various, often reinforcing ways to perpetuate racial group inequity. It identifies dimensions of our history and culture that have allowed privileges associated with ‘whiteness’ and disadvantages associated with ‘color’ to endure and adapt over time. Structural racism is not something that a few people or institutions choose to practice. Instead it has been a feature of the social, economic and political systems in which we all exist.” (The Aspen Institute n.d.)
¶ 29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 “Systemic racism includes: recurrent individual mistreatment; exclusionary or harmful institutional policies and practices; and broader societal and intergenerational injustice.” (Sheppard, et al. 2020)
¶ 31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 1 Racial identity is the psychological sense of belonging perceived by oneself and others based on membership in existing racial categories. Racial identities often involve a sense of shared culture and history with others from a particular racial group, although this is not a necessary condition for all forms of racial identity.
¶ 32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 Racial identities function at both the individual and the societal levels. For individuals, racial identities often provide a sense of group belonging as well as shared cultures and beliefs. When individuals talk about their racial identity, they often are referring to some level of connection, shared experience, and/or commonality between themselves and other members of their racial group. It is the perceived connection between members of the racial group that forms the content and meaning of racial identities. (“Racial Identity” 2012)
¶ 33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 “Racial identity is externally imposed: ‘How do others perceive me?’. Racial identity is also internally constructed: ‘How do I identify myself?’ (National Museum for African American History and Culture, n.d.)
¶ 34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 The social construction of race. To be racialized is to be defined by one’s race. A social construction of races as “different and unequal in ways that matter to economic, political and social life.” (“Racialization” 2008; Ontario Human Rights Commission, n.d.).
¶ 35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 1 Generally means believing that a person’s behavior is determined by stable inherited characteristics deriving from separate racial stocks; each of these distinctive attributes is then evaluated in relation to ideas of superiority and inferiority. This implies that there is a social construction in which certain groups of people are superior to others. This social construction is the result of social, economic, and political factors that have ascribed power to some groups, while leaving others powerless. (“Racism” 2008)
¶ 36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 “A doctrine that holds that the world’s human population consists of various “races” that are the primary determinants of human traits and capacities. This doctrine typically regards one’s own race as superior to other races.” (Pettigrew 2020)
¶ 37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 1 White supremacy is a term used to characterize various belief systems central to which are one or more of the following key tenets: 1) whites should have dominance over people of other backgrounds, especially where they may co-exist; 2) whites should live by themselves in a whites-only society; 3) white people have their own “culture” that is superior to other cultures; 4) white people are genetically superior to other people.” (Anti-Defamation League n.d.).
¶ 38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 A historically based, institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations, and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent, for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power, and privilege. (Martinez 1998).
¶ 39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 The result of a social and cultural process that situates White people in a place of power and privilege because of their skin color and White racial identity…There is more to whiteness than White identity and racial privilege, however; it relates to a system and process that keeps those who are in dominant positions from recognizing or understanding how inequalities and racism operate in society. (“Whiteness” 2008)
¶ 40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 Though the term invokes ideas related to skin color, whiteness refers more specifically to a structural position—that is, to a racialized social identity that is positioned as superior relative to other “races” within a system of racial hierarchy. Indeed, because race is socially constructed—and not biological—whiteness can be understood as the result of social and cultural processes, rooted in a global history of European colonialism, imperialism, and transatlantic slavery, and maintained today through various institutions, ideologies, and everyday social practices. (Cancelmo and Mueller 2019).
¶ 42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 Anti-Defamation League. “White Supremacy.” Accessed December 13, 2021. https://www.adl.org/resources/glossary-terms/white-supremacy.
¶ 43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 The Aspen Institute. “Glossary for Understanding the Dismantling Structural Racism/Promoting Racial Equity Analysis.” Accessed August 16, 2021. https://www.aspeninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/files/content/docs/rcc/RCC-Structural-Racism-Glossary.pdf.
¶ 44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 Bivens, Donna. “Internalized Racism: A Definition.” Women’s Theological Center, 1995. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qJA73qwdrxQ6THTkYY5q8raqwlooVS_5/view.
¶ 47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 Harper, Shaun. R. “Race without racism: How higher education researchers minimize racist institutional norms.” The Review of Higher Education 36, no. 1, Supplement (2012): 9-29. https://rossierapps.usc.edu/facultydirectory/publications/231/Harper%20(2012)%20RHE.pdf.
¶ 48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 Kohn, Margaret and Reddy, Kavita , “Colonialism.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. 2017. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2017/entries/colonialism/.
¶ 50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 Martinez, Elizabeth. “What is White Supremacy?” 1998. https://www.pittsburghartscouncil.org/storage/documents/ProfDev/what-is-white-supremacy.pdf.
¶ 51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 National Museum for African American History and Culture. “Talking about Race.” Race and Racial Identity, accessed December 13, 2021. https://nmaahc.si.edu/learn/talking-about-race/topics/race-and-racial-identity.
¶ 52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 Nelson, Regena. “Your Voice Your Future Town Hall.” News Channel 3, filmed January 29, 2021. Video of town hall, 29:03. https://wwmt.com/news/local/town-hall-explores-answers-to-the-question-what-is-systemic-racism.
¶ 53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 Office for Diversity, Literacy and Outreach Services [ODLOS]. “ODLOS Glossary of Terms.” American Library Association, 2017. https://www.ala.org/aboutala/odlos-glossary-terms.
¶ 54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 Ontario Human Rights Commission, “Race discrimination, race and racism (fact sheet).” Accessed December 13, 2021. http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/racial-discrimination-race-and-racism-fact-sheet/
¶ 56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 Race Forward: The Center for Racial Justice Innovation. “Race Reporting Guide.” raceforward.org, 2015. https://www.raceforward.org/sites/default/files/Race%20Reporting%20Guide%20by%20Race%20Forward_V1.1.pdf.
¶ 61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 Ramnath, Maia. “Colonialism.” conspireforchange.org. Institute for Anarchist Studies, 2012. https://www.conspireforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/lex_colonialism_master.pdf.
¶ 62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 Shalabi, N M. “Teach With Me: The Promise of a Raced Politic for Social Justice in College Classrooms.” Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis 2, no. 2 (2014). https://www.iastatedigitalpress.com/jctp/article/id/529/.
¶ 63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 Sheppard, Colleen, Tamara Thermitus, and Derek J. Jones. “Understanding How Racism Becomes Systemic.” Inclusive Citizenship and Deliberative Democracy, August 18, 2020. https://www.mcgill.ca/humanrights/article/universal-human-rights/understanding-how-racism-becomes-systemic.
¶ 65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 “Structural Racism in America.” The Urban Institute, accessed August 16, 2021. https://www.urban.org/features/structural-racism-america.
¶ 66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 Waziyatan. “Colonialism on the Ground.” intercontinentalcry.org, 2014. https://intercontinentalcry.org/colonialism-ground/.
¶ 67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 “Whiteness.” In Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and SocietyEdited by Richard T. Schaefer. Sage Publications, 2008.Adams, Maurianne, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice. New York: Routledge, 2016.