The Lady, the Tramp and the Lion King: Mixed Messages about Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Disney’s Magic Kingdom

ANSS Program Bibliography

“The Lady, the Tramp, and the Lion King: Mixed Messages about Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Disney’s Magic Kingdom”

For more information, visit the 2008 ANSS program website.


Keith M. Harris

Harris, K. M. (2006). Boys, boyz, boies: An ethics of Black masculinity in film and popular media (Studies in African American history and culture). New York: Routledge.

Betsy Hearne

Hearne, B. (1989). Beauty and the Beast: Visions and revisions of an old tale. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hearne, B. (1993). Beauties and Beasts (The Oryx multicultural folktale series). Phoenix: Oryx Press.

Hearne, B. (1997). Disney revisited, or, Jiminy Cricket, it’s musty down here! The Horn Book Magazine, 73(2), 137-146.

Hearne, B. (1999). Swapping tales and stealing stories: The ethics and aesthetics of folklore in children’s literature. Library Trends, 47(3), 509-528.

Patricia Domingues Little

PowerPoint Presentation from the conference event: Only a Fairytale

Daniels, S., Little, P., Reynolds, M. L., & Sullivan, M. A. (2006, Fall). Where visual literacy and identity meet: Adolescents define themselves through participation in a university video and art enrichment program. Wisdom in Education.

Little, P., & Marx, M. (2002). Teaching about heterosexism and creating an empathic experience of homophobia. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6(3/4), 205-218.

Claudine Michel

Bellegarde-Smith, P., & Michel, C. (Eds.). (2006). Haitian Vodou: Spirit, myth, and reality. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Michel, C. (1996). Re-Reading Disney: Not quite Snow White. Discourse, 17(1), 5-14.

Michel, C., & Bellegarde-Smith, P. (Eds.). (2006). Vodou in Haitian life and culture: Invisible powers. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.


Books, Chapters, & Films

Ayres, B. (Ed.). (2003). The emperor’s old groove: Decolonizing Disney’s Magic Kingdom. New York: P. Lang.

Bell, E., Haas, L., & Sells, L. (Eds.). (1995). From mouse to mermaid: The politics of film, gender, and culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Brode, D. (2004). From Walt to Woodstock: How Disney created the counterculture. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Brode, D. (2005). Multiculturalism and the mouse: Race and sex in Disney entertainment. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bryman, A. (2004). The Disneyization of society. London: Sage.

Byrne, E., & McQuillan, M. (1999). Deconstructing Disney. London: Pluto Press.

Davis, A. M. (2006). Good girls and wicked witches: Women in Disney’s feature animation. Eastleigh, UK: John Libbey. (Distributed in North America by Indiana University Press)

Eliot, M. (1993). Walt Disney: Hollywood’s dark prince: A biography. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group.

Gabler, N. (2006). Walt Disney: The triumph of the American imagination. New York: Knopf.

Giroux, H. A. (1996). Animating youth: The Disneyfication of children’s culture. In Fugitive cultures: Race, violence, & youth (pp. 89–113). New York: Routledge.

Giroux, H. A. (1997). Are Disney movies good for your kids? In S. R. Steinberg & J. L. Kincheloe (Eds.), Kinderculture: The corporate construction of childhood (pp. 53–68). Boulder, CO: Westview.

Giroux, H. A. (1999). The mouse that roared: Disney and the end of innocence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Griffin, S. (2000). Tinker Belles and evil queens: The Walt Disney Company from the inside out. New York: New York University Press.

Henke, J. B., & Umble, D. Z. (1999). And she lived happily ever after … The Disney myth in the video age. In M. Meyers (Ed.), Mediated women: Representations in popular culture (pp. 321-338). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Lippi-Green, R. (1997). Teaching children how to discriminate: What we learn from the Big Bad Wolf. In English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States (pp. 79-103). London: Routledge.

Pinsky, M. I. (2004). The Gospel according to Disney: Faith, trust, and pixie dust. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Sammond, N. (2005). Babes in Tomorrowland: Walt Disney and the making of the American child, 1930-1960. Durham: Duke University Press.

Schmidt, C. S. (2006). Not just Disney: Destructive stereotypes of Arabs in children’s literature. In D. A. Zabel (Ed.), Arabs in the Americas: Interdisciplinary essays on the Arab diaspora (pp. 169-180). New York: Peter Lang.

Smoodin, E. (Ed.). (1994). Disney discourse: Producing the Magic Kingdom. New York: Routledge.

Sun, C.F. (Writer/Producer), & Picker, M. (Director/Produce). (2001). Mickey Mouse Monopoly [Motion picture] Northampton, MA: Media Education Foundation.

Thomas, B. (1994). Walt Disney: An American original. New York: Disney Editions.

Wasko, J. (2001). Understanding Disney: The manufacture of fantasy. Cambridge, England: Polity.

Wasko, J., Phillips, M., & Meehan, E. R. (Eds.). (2001). Dazzled by Disney? The Global Disney Audiences Project (Studies in communication and society). London: Leicester University Press.

Zipes, J. (1997). Happily ever after: Fairy tales, children, and the culture industry. New York:Routledge.


Articles & Papers

Addison, E. (1993). Saving other women from other men: Disney’s Aladdin. Camera Obscura, 31, 4-25.

Aidman, A. (1999, May). Disney’s Pocahontas: Conversations with Native American and Euro-American girls. Paper presented at the International Communication Association Conference, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Report No. ED427892). Retrieved May 27, 2008, from ERIC database.

Aidman, A., & Reese, D. (1996, May). Pocahontas: Problematizing the pro-social. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Communications Association, Chicago, IL. (ERIC Report No. ED418810). Retrieved May 27, 2008, from ERIC database.

Baker-Sperry, L. (2007). The production of meaning through peer interaction: Children and Walt Disney’s Cinderella. Sex Roles, 56(11/12), 717-727.

Bell, E. (1996). Do you believe in fairies?: Peter Pan, Walt Disney and me. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19(2), 103-126.

Buescher, D. T., & Ono, K. A. (1996). Civilized colonialism: Pocahontas as neocolonial rhetoric. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19(2), 127-153.

Ciha, K., Joseph, J., & Martin, T. J. (1994). Racism in Walt Disney’s The Jungle Book. Popular Culture Review, 5(1), 23-35.

Craven, A. (2002). Beauty and the belles: Discourses of feminism and femininity in Disneyland. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 9(2), 123-142.

Davis, A. M. (2005). The “dark prince” and dream women: Walt Disney and mid-twentieth century American feminism. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 25(2), 213-230.

Di Giovanni, E. (2003). Cultural otherness and global communication in Walt Disney films at the turn of the century. The Translator, 9(2), 207-223.

Do Rozario, R.C. (2004). The princess and the Magic Kingdom: Beyond nostalgia, the function of the Disney princess. Women’s Studies in Communication, 27(1), 34-59.

Downey, S. D. (1996). Feminine empowerment in Disney’s Beauty and the Beast. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19(2), 185-212.

Dundes, L. (2001). Disney’s modern heroine Pocahontas: Revealing age-old gender stereotypes and role discontinuity under a facade of liberation. The Social Science Journal, 38(3), 353-365.

Faherty, V. E. (2001). Is the mouse sensitive? A study of race, gender, and social vulnerability in Disney animated films. SIMILE: Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education, 1(3), 1-8.

Giroux, H. A. (1995). When you wish upon a star it makes a difference who you are: Children’s culture and the wonderful world of Disney. International Journal of Educational Reform,4(1), 79-83.

Goldmark, D., & McKnight, U. (2008). Locating America: Revisiting Disney’s Lady and the Tramp. Social Identities, 14(1), 101-120.

Gunder, P. A. (1997). Authenticating authentic material: The deeper level of embedded societal stereotypes. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies, 14, 107-115.

Gutierrez, G. (2000). Deconstructing Disney: Chicano/a children and critical race theory. Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies, 25(1), 7-46.

Henke, J. B., Umble, D. Z., & Smith, N. J. (1996). Construction of the female self: Feminist readings of the Disney heroine. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19(2), 229-249.

Hoerrner, K. L. (1996). Gender roles in Disney films: Analyzing behaviors from Snow White to Simba. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19(2), 213-228.

Junn, E. N. (1997, April). Media portrayals of love, marriage & sexuality for child audiences: A select content analysis of Walt Disney animated family films. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, DC. (ERIC Report No. ED407118). Retrieved May 27, 2008, from ERIC database.

Kutsuzawa, K. (2000). Disney’s Pocahontas: Reproduction of gender, orientalism, and the strategic construction of racial harmony in the Disney empire. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 6(4), 39-65.

Lacroix, C. (2004). Images of animated others: The orientalization of Disney’s cartoon heroines from The Little Mermaid to The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Popular Communication, 2(4), 213-229.

Layng, J. M. (2001). The animated woman: The powerless beauty of Disney heroines from Snow White to Jasmine. The American Journal of Semiotics, 17(3), 197-215.

Leadbeater, B. J., & Wilson, G. L. (1993). Flipping their fins for a place to stand: 19th- and 20th-century mermaids. Youth and Society, 24(4), 466-486.

Li-Vollmer, M., & LaPointe, M. E. (2003). Gender transgression and villainy in animated film. Popular Communication, 1(2), 89-109.

Martin-Rodriguez, M. M. (2000). Hyenas in the pride lands: Latinos/as and immigration in Disney’s The Lion King. Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies, 25(1), 47-66.

May, J. P. (1981). Walt Disney’s interpretation of children’s literature. Language Arts, 58(4), 463-472.

Mo, W., & Shen, W. (2000). A mean wink at authenticity: Chinese images in Disney’s Mulan. New Advocate, 13(2), 129-142.

O’Brien, P. C. (1996). The happiest films on earth: A textual and contextual analysis of Walt Disney’s Cinderella and The Little Mermaid. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19(2), 155-183.

Pewewardy, C. (1996/97). The Pocahontas paradox: A cautionary tale for educators. Journal of Navajo Education, 14(1/2), 20-25.

Phillips, J., & Wojcik-Andrews, I. (1996). Telling tales to children: The pedagogy of empire in MGM’s “Kim” and Disney’s “Aladdin.” The Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Children’s Literature, 20, 66-89.

Pigeon, G. G. (1996). The representation of black culture in Disney. Radical America, 26(3), 28-39.

Robinson, T., Callister, M., Magoffin, D., & Moore, J. (2007). The portrayal of older characters in Disney animated films. Journal of Aging Studies, 21(3), 203-213.

Sayers, Francis Clarke. (1965). Walt Disney accused. The Horn Book Magazine, 41, 602-611.

Shortsleeve, K. (2004). The wonderful world of the depression: Disney, despotism and the1930s. Or, why Disney scares us. The Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Children’s Literature, 28(1), 1-30.

Silverman, H. (2002). Groovin’ to ancient Peru: A critical analysis of Disney’s The Emperor’s New Groove. Journal of Social Archaeology, 2(3), 298-322.

St. John, T. (1983). Walter Elias Disney: The cartoon as race fantasy. Ball State University Forum, 24(3), 64-70.

Strong, P. T. (1996). Animated Indians: Critique and contradiction in commodified children’s culture. Cultural Anthropology, 11(3), 405-424.

Tanner, L. R., Haddock, S. A., Zimmerman, T. S., & Lund, L. K. (2003). Images of couples and families in Disney feature-length animated films. American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(5), 355-373.

Towbin, M. A., Haddock, S. A., Zimmerman, T. S., Lund, L. K., & Tanner, L. R. (2003). Images of gender, race, age, and sexual orientation in Disney feature-length animated films. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 15(4), 19-44.

Wurfel, M. (1999). Walt Disney’s true lo$v$e: Tales of dizzying misogyny. Z Magazine, 12(6), 48-50.


Compiled by Lorna Lueck, 2008 ANSS Conference Program Planning Committee.